B4

Uzair Arif
Mind Map by Uzair Arif, updated more than 1 year ago
Uzair Arif
Created by Uzair Arif almost 5 years ago
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Description

First unit of Biology from OCR 21st Century Additional Science: B4 - The processes of life

Resource summary

B4
1 Enzymes
1.1 Biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions
1.2 Work best at optimum pH or temperature
1.2.1 Exceeding optimums makes the enzyme change shape, or denature
1.3 Lock and Key Model
2 Respiration
2.1 Aerobic
2.1.1 Energy used for movement, active transport and synthesis of large molecules
2.1.2 With oxygen
2.1.3 Releases more energy per glucose molecule
2.1.4 Equations
2.2 A series of food chemical reactions that release energy by breaking down large food molecules
2.3 Anaerobic
2.3.1 Without oxygen
2.3.2 Less energy per glucose molecule
2.3.3 Equations
2.3.3.1 Animal cells and some bacteria
2.3.3.1.1 Glucose ==> Lactic Acid
2.3.3.2 Plant cells and some microorganisms
2.3.3.2.1 Glucose ==> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide
3 Fermentation
3.1 When microorganisms break down sugars into other products as they respire anaerobically
3.2 Biogas
3.2.1 Fuel for heating and lighting
3.2.2 Lots of different microorganisms used to produce it
3.2.3 Ferment plant and animal waste, which contains carbohydrates
3.2.4 Biogas produced mainly made of methane and carbon dioxide
3.3 Bread
3.3.1 Made using yeast
3.3.2 Yeast ferment carbohydrates in flour and release carbon dioxide, causing bread to rise
3.4 Alcohol
3.4.1 Yeast ferment sugar to form alcohol
3.4.2 Sugar used in alcohol production comes from grapes (for wine) and barley (for beer)
4 Photosynthesis
4.1 A series of food chemical reactions that uses energy from sunlight to produce food
4.2 Produces glucose - a sugar
4.3 Happens in leaf cells
4.4 Chlorophyll is a green substance which absorbs sunlight and allows energy to be used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose
4.5 Equations
4.6 Glucose
4.6.1 Used for respiration - releases energy from glucose
4.6.2 Used to make chemicals for growth
4.6.2.1 Converted into cellulose for cell walls
4.6.2.2 Combined with nitrogen to make amino acids to make proteins
4.6.2.3 Helps to make chlorophyll
4.6.3 Stored as starch - in roots, stems and leaves, used when rates of photosynthesis is slower, like winter
4.7 Factors
4.7.1 When a factor stops photosynthesis from happening any faster, it becomes a limiting factor
4.7.2 Light
4.7.3 Carbon Dioxide
4.7.4 Temperature
5 Diffusion - passive overall movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
6 Osmosis - overall movement of water from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration through a partially permeable memberane
7 Active Transport - overall movement of chemicals across a cell membrane from a region o lower concentration to a region of higher concentration using energy released by respiration
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