Biology 157- The Respiratory System

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Biology respiratory system

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Biology 157- The Respiratory System
1 The respiratory System
1.1 Terminology
1.1.1 Normoxia- normal concentrations of oxygen available
1.1.2 Hyperoxia- low concentrations of oxygen available
1.1.3 Anoxia- total lack of oxygen
1.1.4 hypercapnia- high concentrations of oxygen available
1.1.5 Apnea- temporary inability to breathe
1.1.6 Dyspnea- subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing
1.2 Functions of the respiratory system
1.2.1 1. Provide a surface area in the lungs for gas exchange 2. Move air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs along the respiratory passageways 3. Protect the respiratory surfaces by filter, warming, and humidifying inspired air 4. Produce sounds 5. House receptors for the nasal cavity
1.3 Organs of respiration include nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli
1.4 The respiratory system is divided into two groups: respiratory zone and conducting zone
1.4.1 Conducting zone- the rest of the respiratory system is just passageways that let the air get to the alveoli. The conducting zone structures clean, humidify, and warm incoming air so that when it reaches the alveoli it has fewer irritants, is warm and damp, and less likely to cause damage
1.4.2 Respiratory zone- alveoli are the main site for gas exchange and are thin enough for gases to pass easily through.
1.5 Upper respiratory system- pharynx and up, Lower respiratory system- larynx and down
1.6 Diseases in the nasal cavity: viral, bacterial, or fungal infections which can lead to inflammation in the nasal cavity. Benign or malignant tumors can also form within the nasal cavity
1.7 Respiratory Defense System
1.7.1 Mucous cells and mucous glands along much of the length of the respiratory tract produce mucous that bathes exposed surfaces to trap particles
1.7.2 Cilia in the nasal cavity sweep mucus and its trapped contents towards the pharynx where it is swallowed
1.7.3 Cilia in the lower respiratory system also move mucus towards the pharynx (mucus escalator)
1.7.4 Emphysema- develops when the walls of the alveoli and alveolar sacs are destroyed due to breathed in toxins
1.8 Alveoli include 3 cell types: 1. Simple Squamous- main site for gas exchange 2. Type II alveolar- secrete surfactant that keeps the air moist 3.alveolar macrophage- wandering free macrophages
1.9 Respiration occurs in four steps: 1. Pulmonary ventilation - breathing. 2. External respiration- blood gains oxygen and loses carbon dioxide. 3. Internal respiration- blood loses oxygen and gains carbon dioxide. 4. Cellular respiration- oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is released during production of ATP
1.10 Boyle's Law- the pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container
1.11 Each lung lies within a pleural cavity. The parietal and visceral pleura are separated by a thin film of pleural fluid
1.12 Inhalation: the thoracic cavity expands in response to the contractions of the main muscles of inhalation (diaphragm and external intercostal muscles), the lungs expand as the thoracic cavity increases in size, lung volume increases and thus pressure in the lungs decrease to below atmospheric pressure, air flows into the lungs to equalize pressure
1.13 Exhalation: when the muscles of inhalation relax, the thoracic cavity and the lungs recoil to their usual size, as volume of the lungs decrease pressure increases to more than atmospheric pressure, air flows out to equalize pressure
1.14 Collapsed lung- if the pressure is lost in the lungs due to a chest wound the adherence of the lungs to the thoracic walls is lost and the lungs collapsed. This is called atelectasis or pneumothorax.
1.15 A tension pneumothorax occurs when inspired air is directed into the pleural cavity via bronchi or chest wound and cannot escape. As a result, the pressure builds up in the pleural cavity and squeezes the heart and the other lung
1.16 Dalton's Law- the total pressure exerted by a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the individual partial pressures associated with individual gas components
1.17 External Respiration- diffusion of oxygen from air in the alveoli of the lungs to blood in pulmonary capillaries and the diffusion of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. Internal respiration- diffusion of oxygen from the blood in systemic capillaries into body cells, and diffusion of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction
1.18 High Altitude Sickness- exposure to low partial pressures of oxygen
1.19 Air Overexpansion Syndrome- As a diver ascends and pressure decreases, the volume of air increases and the lungs over expand and can tear
1.20 Nitrogen Narcosis and Decompression Sickness
1.20.1 Nitrogen Narcosis- excessive amounts of dissolved nitrogen
1.20.2 Decompression Sickness- If the ascent of a diver is too rapid, nitrogen comes out of a solution and forms nitrogen bubbles in tissues. Bubbles typically develop in joins first, producting severe pain and afflicted individuals tend to curl up (the "bends")
1.21 Carbon Dioxide is transported in 3 ways: 1. About 70% is transported in blood plasma as bicarbonate ions 2. About 23% binds to hemoglobin (to the globin portion) 3. Only 7% is dissolved in blood plasma
1.22 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning- carbon monoxide travels into the blood where it binds to hemoglobin just as oxygen does. However, the binding of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin is 200X stronger than for oxygen. Small concentrations of carbon monoxide greatly reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood
1.23 The basic rhythm of respiration is controlled involuntarily by neurons in the medulla oblongata and pons that form the respiratory center
1.24 Shallow Water Blackout- hyperventilation before swimming lowers the amount of carbon dioxide in the lungs. The reduced carbon dioxide will shut off chemoreceptors. The oxygen levels may drop sufficiently to cause hypoxia and shallow water blackout
1.25 Normal respiratory rate is 12-20 breaths per minute
1.26 Much smaller changes in carbon dioxide will have a greater increase in respirator rate compared to oxygen
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