Outline some of the ways in which government educational policies may have affected social class differences in educational achievement.

Tahlie
Mind Map by Tahlie, updated more than 1 year ago
Tahlie
Created by Tahlie over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Outline some of the ways in which government educational policies may have affected social class differences in educational achievement., created by Tahlie on 04/26/2015.

Resource summary

Outline some of the ways in which government educational policies may have affected social class differences in educational achievement.
  1. Intro
    1. At GCSE level middle class children achieve more than working class children. According to the youth cohort system (2007) 77% of children whose parents were of higher professional class achieved 5 GCSE grades A* - C in 2004. Compared to only 33% of children whose parents were unemployed/ not classified.
    2. Widen Gap
      1. 1988 education reform act
        1. Conservative gov, Margaret Thatcher, Favoured by The new right, supported by the new labour of 1997 blair and brown
          1. introduced marketisation
            1. The process of introducing market forces of consumer choice and competition between schools. Reduces direct state control over education.
              1. David (1993)
                1. Parentocracy - because supports argue that this encourages diversity among schools, gives parents more choice, meets the needs of different pupils and raises standards.
              2. Policies to promote include the publication of exam league tables and ofsted reports. business sponsorship of school and formula funding
                1. Reproduce class inequality - middle class parents are better placed to take advantage of the available choices
                  1. Ball (1994) and Whitty (1998)
                    1. reproduces and legitimates inequality through exam league tables and the funding formula
                      1. League tables
                        1. Schools which achieve good results are more in demand and can be more selective therefore recruit high achieving middle class pupils. Schools with poor league table position are unable to be selective and must take less able working class children so results are poorer and they remain unattractive to middle class parents.
                        2. Funding formula
                          1. Schools allocated funds based on how many pupils they attract. popular schools get more funding and can afford better qualified teachers and and better facilities, hey can be more selective nd attract more able ambitious middle class pupils. Unpopular schools get less pupils, less funding and cannot match the teachers and facilities of popular schools therefore working class pupils who go to these schools are at a disadvantage.
          2. Narrow Gap
            1. New Labour After 1997 - anti inequality policies
              1. EMA payments to students on low incomes to encourage them to stay in education after 16.
                1. Whitty (2002) - whilst EMA's encourage education for WC students until 18, narrowing the gap university tuition fees may deter them from continuing ed after 18. and middle class children with money for tuition once again have an advantage. new labour policies are cosmetic they present a positive image without actually reducing inequalities.
                2. Introduction of academies, 200 academies by 2010. many of theses are former comprehensive schools with poor results and WC pupils and i was claimed that this would raise their achievement narrowing the gap between classes in achievement. However the results have been mixed and some academies results have improved and in others they have worsened.
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