Psychology Concept Map Anya Ettinger

Anya Ettinger
Mind Map by Anya Ettinger, updated more than 1 year ago
Anya Ettinger
Created by Anya Ettinger about 6 years ago
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Psychology Concept Map Anya Ettinger
  1. "the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour in a given context" (Dictionary.com, 2015)
    1. Abnormal Psychology
      1. "a division of psychology that studies people who are "abnormal" or "atypical" compared to other members of a given society" (SimplyPsychology.org, 2014)
        1. Aaron T. Beck
          1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a form of psychotherapy developed by Aaron Beck. It uses different types of techniques to help the patient identify and solve their problems.
            1. CBT is a common form of therapy used to help patients overcome disorders such as depression, anxiety, and OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder). A common method used in CBT is to go back and review situations where said disorder was triggered. The model of CBT is to look at the thoughts, feelings, and behaviour present in the situation. By breaking those down, patients find themselves more relieved and to start feeling better.
              1. CBT has affected many patients going through stages of mental disorders. It helps people find the root of their issues, and find a way to conquer them. With CBT many disorders can be either minimized or stopped completely.
                1. The University of California, Los Angeles, has recently conducted research on the effects of CBT in OCD patients. CBT is the most common therapy method for OCD patients, but it does not always work for all cases. UCLA's research was on how an MRI of the brain can help psychologists determine whether or not cognitive therapy will help that specific patient, and if not which form of therapy would most benefit the patient.
              2. Developmental Psychology
                1. "a branch of psychology that studies changes in human behaviour from early life to death" (Dictionary.com, 2015)
                  1. Mary Ainsworth
                    1. In the 1970's, Ainsworth developed an assessment called the Strange Situation Classification (SSC).
                      1. The SSC was a test designed for infants between the age of nine and 18 months to test their levels of attachment to their caregivers.
                        1. Based on the results Ainsworth gathered from the Strange Situation Classification, she came to the conclusion that there were three different types of attachments infants had to their caregivers.
                            1. These attachments were Secure Attachment, Insecure Avoidant Attachment, and Insecure Ambivalent Attachment. She found that infants with secure attachments had mothers that tended to their needs, infants with avoidant attachments had mothers who were insensitive and rejective of their needs, and infants with ambivalent attachments had mothers who were inconsistent with their level of care
                              1. She found that infants with secure attachments had caregivers who paid attention to them, and responded to their requests for help.
                                1. She found that infants with avoidant attachments have caregivers who do not respond to the infants cries for help
                                  1. She found that infants with insecure-ambivalent attachments had caregivers who were very inconsistent with their level of care and attention.
                                2. Worked together at the Tavistock Clinic in England in the 1950's. Both Ainsworth and Bowlby researched attachments.
                                  1. All three of these psychologists were involved in studying children or the effects of childhood.
                                    1. Both believed that certain thoughts/actions come from childhood experiences such as neglect and frightening situations.
                                    2. John Bowbly
                                      1. Bowlby developed a theory of attachment in the 1960's that stated children were born with a biological preset ability to form attachments in order to survive
                                        1. He believed that the ability to make attachments was activated by a threatening situation in which interacting is required to survive.
                                              1. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a disorder that may occur in people who were neglected as children and are therefore unable to form a secure attachment with anyone. Fifteen year-old Roksana Sikorski was adopted along with her sibling from Poland. She was four at the time and it is said that she suffered abuse. This lead to her diagnosis of RAD. Both her and her boyfriend, Michael Rivera, are being charged with attempted murder and conspiracy for plotting to kill her family. She is being charged as an adult and is set to go to trial on October 26, 2015.
                                                1. This supports Ainsworth's theory that children who are neglected have a lot of trouble forming attachments with anyone and this can lead to unusual and aggressive behavior.
                                              2. Behavioural Psychology
                                                1. Sigmund Freud
                                                  1. Though Freud did not come up with it, he popularized the theory of the unconscious mind.
                                                    1. This research suggested that there were three levels of the mind, conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. He believed that fears and other unexplained actions come from the unconscious mind and is affected by childhood memories which are no longer stored by ones conscious mind.
                                                      1. Freud believed that personality was made up of three parts, the id, the ego, and the super-ego
                                                        1. He believed that the id controlled your desires, and that it constantly looked for fulfillment regardless of whether it will affect others or not.
                                                          1. He believed that the super-ego controlled ones conscience, and that it always aimed for perfection.
                                                            1. Freud believed that the ego was the voice of reason in ones personality. It learns that one cannot always get what they want, and make everyone happy. He also believed that it was the only part of ones personality that they are aware of.
                                                            2. Freud believed that the ego was the voice of reason in ones personality. It learned that one can't always get what they want and make everyone happy. He also believed that it was the only part of ones personality that they are aware of.
                                                              1. He believed that the id controlled your desires, and that it constantly looked for fulfillment regardless of whether it will affect others or not.
                                                                1. He believed that the super-ego controlled ones conscience, and that it always aimed for perfection.
                                                              2. All of these theories relate to the topic of nature vs. nurture. Ainsworth and Freud's theories have to do with nurture. Childhood experiences and how the child was cared for affect how it behaves and thinks. While Bowbly's theory suggests that children are born with a preset ability to make attachments and does not necessarily relate to how the caregiver treats it.
                                                                  1. Both Freud and Bowlby believed that behavioural and mental health problems could be associated with early childhood.
                                                                    1. Freud's work falls into the branches of both behaviourism and abnormal psychology.
                                                                    2. "the psychological perspective primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded and with the relationships of observable behavior to environmental stimuli" (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2002)
                                                                      1. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a disorder that may occur in people who were neglected as children and are therefore unable to form a secure attachment with anyone. Fifteen year-old Roksana Sikorski was adopted along with her sibling from Poland. She was four at the time and it is said that she suffered abuse. This lead to her diagnosis of RAD. Both her and her boyfriend, Michael Rivera, are being charged with attempted murder and conspiracy for plotting to kill her family. She is being charged as an adult and is set to go to trial on October 26, 2015.
                                                                        1. This relates to Freud's theory of the unconscious mind. Sikorski had had a traumatic childhood experience that was kept in her unconscious mind and thus explains her actions. She was abused at a very young age and that made her very angry with her family when she got older. This caused aggression and was the reason she wanted to kill them, even though this family never abused her.
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