Module 3

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Module 3

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Module 3
  1. Chapter 15
    1. The School
      1. Factors for Delinquency
        1. Low academic performance
          1. Little School Invovlement
            1. Low attachment to school
              1. Poor relationships to teachers
                1. Low goals
                  1. Dropping out
                    1. Misbehavior
        2. Factors for Success
          1. Small schools / good resources
            1. Good discipline
              1. Opportunities and Praise
                1. High expectations
                  1. Pleasant Working Conditions
                    1. Cooperation
                      1. Community Involvement
      2. Chapter 16
        1. Delinquent Peers and Gangs
          1. Only small % of delinquent peer groups are gangs
            1. Offending Groups (actually commit delinquent acts)
              1. Accomplice Networks (pool of potential co-offenders available)
                1. Similar in terms of age and sex
                  1. One person = the instigator
                    1. Most Gang Members =
                      1. Poor
                        1. Male
                          1. Urban Communities
                            1. Teenagers
                              1. Minority
                    2. Why do Juveniles Join Gangs?
                      1. Social
                        1. Positie identity
                          1. Security
                            1. Financial gain
                        2. Chapter 17
                          1. Other Social Influences
                            1. Religion
                              1. May increase control
                              2. Work
                                1. Reduce monetary strain
                                  1. Increase control
                                  2. Mass Media
                                    1. TV / Movie violence
                                      1. Modest effect
                                    2. Music
                                      1. Cyberbullying
                                        1. Drugs
                                          1. Gun Ownership
                                        2. Chapter 18
                                          1. Pulling It All Together
                                            1. Major Direct Causes
                                              1. Four Clusters
                                                1. Irritability / Low Self Control
                                                  1. Poor Parenting
                                                    1. Negative School Experiences
                                                      1. Association with Delinquent Peers
                                                    2. Theories
                                                      1. Strain Theory
                                                        1. Stressful events or conditions
                                                        2. Social Learning Theory
                                                          1. Associating with others modeling delinquency
                                                          2. Control Theory
                                                            1. Weak Controls
                                                            2. Labeling Theory
                                                              1. Labeled "delinquent"
                                                            3. Sexual Abuse
                                                              1. Females more likely to be victims of sexual abuse
                                                                1. Can cause delinquency
                                                            4. Chapter 19
                                                              1. Policies and Programs
                                                                1. Randomized Experiment
                                                                  1. Doing something to a group of people then observing the consequences
                                                                  2. Before and After Study
                                                                    1. Treatment Group
                                                                      1. Participate in the program
                                                                      2. Comparison Group / Control Group
                                                                        1. Do not participate
                                                                        2. Random sample
                                                                          1. Random assignment
                                                                            1. Delinquency is often measured in terms of arrest rates
                                                                            2. Two Reasons Programs are Ineffective
                                                                              1. Program does not work
                                                                                1. Program is not properly implemented
                                                                              2. Chapter 20
                                                                                1. The Police
                                                                                  1. Crime fighters
                                                                                    1. Preventative patrol
                                                                                      1. Not the best policing strategy
                                                                                      2. No good evidence that increasing number of police reduces crime rate
                                                                                        1. Crackdowns in hotspots are effective
                                                                                          1. Community Policing
                                                                                            1. Fosters ties with the community
                                                                                              1. More effective
                                                                                                1. Solves underlying problems that lead to crime
                                                                                                  1. Involves community residents in fighting crime
                                                                                                    1. Not easy to implement
                                                                                                    2. Problem Oriented Policing
                                                                                                      1. Scanning
                                                                                                        1. Identify Problems
                                                                                                        2. Analysis
                                                                                                          1. Analyze Problems
                                                                                                          2. Response
                                                                                                            1. Solution to the problem
                                                                                                            2. Assessment
                                                                                                              1. Evaluate the effectiveness
                                                                                                        3. Chapter 21
                                                                                                          1. Juvenile Court and Corrections
                                                                                                            1. Set up to rehab juveniles rather than punish them
                                                                                                              1. Delinquency
                                                                                                                1. Property crimes
                                                                                                                  1. Public order offences
                                                                                                                    1. Violent crimes
                                                                                                                      1. Drug offenses
                                                                                                                        1. 72% of cases are males
                                                                                                                          1. Intake Screening
                                                                                                                            1. Informal Processing
                                                                                                                              1. Informal Probation
                                                                                                                              2. Diversion Programs
                                                                                                                                1. Informal: Counseling, mentoring, drug treatment, etc.
                                                                                                                                2. Teen Courts
                                                                                                                                  1. Petition
                                                                                                                                    1. Describes the offense
                                                                                                                                      1. Waiver
                                                                                                                                        1. Judicial Waiver
                                                                                                                                          1. Prosecutor discretion
                                                                                                                                            1. Statutory waiver
                                                                                                                                          2. Risk and Needs Assessments
                                                                                                                                            1. Probation
                                                                                                                                              1. Supervision and treatment of the juvenile in the community by a probation officer
                                                                                                                                              2. Sanctions
                                                                                                                                                1. Aftercare services
                                                                                                                                              3. Chapter 22
                                                                                                                                                1. The Juvenile Justice System
                                                                                                                                                  1. Control delinquency in a fair or just manner
                                                                                                                                                    1. African Americans are overrepresented in all aspects of the juvenile justice system
                                                                                                                                                      1. Direct Discrimination
                                                                                                                                                        1. Racism
                                                                                                                                                        2. Indirect Discrimination
                                                                                                                                                          1. Race is associated with a variable that influences treatment by the police and courts
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