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MIRCROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

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A small mind map on Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hannah Walsh
Mind Map by Hannah Walsh, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Walsh
Created by Hannah Walsh over 6 years ago
21
1

Resource summary

MIRCROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  1. Mircobiology- The Study of Living things.
    1. Micro-Organisms( also called Microbes) are too small to be seen by the naked eye and are found in huge numbers almost everywhere.
      1. They are present in the Air, Water and Soil, on our skin and inside plants, animals and humans.
        1. There are three types of Micro-organisms.
          1. Viruses
            1. Bacteria
              1. Fungi
            2. Viruses
              1. Viruses are the smallest micro-organisms
                1. Viruses cannot reproduce themselves( they use our cells to multiply, they need a host)
                  1. All Viruses are said to be parasites(I.E. They live on or in another living thing)
                    1. Viruses cause disease to plants, humans and other animals.
                      1. Virus Diseases
                        1. Measles
                          1. Mumps
                            1. Chicken Pox
                              1. Pollo
                                1. Common Cold
                                  1. Flu(Influenza)
                                    1. Cold Sores
                                      1. AIDs(Caused by HIV)
                                      2. Very few chemicals or medicines can kill viruses, for example, Antibiotics prevent bacterial infections but have no effect on viruses as viruses are parasites and use other cells to multiply.
                                        1. Our bodies fight off most virus infections when our White blood cells produce chemicals called Antibodies.
                                        2. Bacteria
                                          1. Bacteria are larger than viruses
                                            1. They don't have a proper Nulceus
                                              1. In order to grow they require
                                                1. Food
                                                  1. Water
                                                    1. Suitable pH
                                                      1. Suitable Tempreture
                                                      2. Bacteria reproduce asexually
                                                        1. In asexual reproduction the offsprings are to the parent as they only came from one parent.
                                                          1. There are no sex cells (Gametes) involved.
                                                            1. Useful
                                                              1. Cause dead plant and animals to decay. This helps return minerals(nutrients to the soil for new growth.
                                                                1. Make food EG-Cheese Burger
                                                                  1. Used in Biotechnology
                                                                  2. Harmful
                                                                    1. Causes Diseases
                                                                      1. TB(Tuberculousis)
                                                                        1. Sore Throat
                                                                          1. Tooth and Gum decay
                                                                            1. Food Posining
                                                                              1. Pneumonia
                                                                              2. Destroys Food EG-Turns milk sour
                                                                                1. Destroys crops in feilds
                                                                              3. Fungi
                                                                                1. These are simple plants that do not contain Chlorophyll.
                                                                                  1. Useful
                                                                                    1. Cause dead plants and animals to decay
                                                                                      1. Some can be eaten EG-Mushrooms
                                                                                        1. Used to make alcohol EG-Yeast
                                                                                        2. Harmful
                                                                                          1. Cause human diseases EG-Athletes foot
                                                                                            1. Some are Poisonous
                                                                                              1. Causes foods to rot EG-Mold
                                                                                            2. Biotechnology-The use of living things, or parts of living things, to produce products of human value.
                                                                                              1. Bacteria and Fungi are used to produce foods, drugs and alcohol.
                                                                                                1. Industrial uses
                                                                                                  1. Yeast is used to produce alcohol in breweries
                                                                                                    1. Bacteria contains special enzymes that contain a special characteristic that gets rid of stains such as fat, ink and blood, this is why it is used in Washing Ditergents
                                                                                                    2. Medical uses
                                                                                                      1. Fungi and Bacteria can be used to make Antibiotics that kill amd prevent diseases.
                                                                                                        1. Antibiotics
                                                                                                          1. Hormones-Insulin used to treat diabetes
                                                                                                            1. Antibiotics- Treat infections
                                                                                                              1. Chemicals need to clot blood-Used by Haemophiliacs who cant clot their blood naturally
                                                                                                          2. Mandatory Experiment
                                                                                                              1. To investigate the presence of micro-organisms in air and soil
                                                                                                              2. Page:142
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