Essentials of Tourism

Sunna Guðmundsdó
Mind Map by , created about 4 years ago

Mind Map on Essentials of Tourism, created by Sunna Guðmundsdó on 11/03/2015.

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Sunna Guðmundsdó
Created by Sunna Guðmundsdó about 4 years ago
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Essentials of Tourism
1 Kafli 1 - Tourism Essentials
1.1 The History of Tourism
1.2 Leiper's Model 1979

Annotations:

  • 1. Tourist  2. Geographical elements 3. the tourism sector
1.3 Demand and Supply

Annotations:

  • Tourism satellite account
1.4 Push and Pull
1.5 The Tourist flow

Annotations:

  • push and pull williams and zelinsky distances between countries connectivity between countries general attractiveness
1.6 Tourists

Annotations:

  • classiffy Tourist.  1. domestic, international 2. inclusice tour, independent, tailor-mafe. 3. long or short haul 4. leisure, business, other. 
1.7 The Tourist Experience
2 Kafli 2 - The Destination
2.1 4 common features of most destinations

Annotations:

  • Amalgams Multiple use inseperability cultural appraisals Amalsgams 1 attractions 2. amenities 3. acess - transport, roads and sea4.  ancillary services - local organisations
2.2 Infrastructure

Annotations:

  • superstructure
2.3 Destination Stakeholders

Annotations:

  • The host community  Tourists The tourism industry The public sector Other stakeholders (f.x. pressure groups)
2.4 The Sustainable Destination

Annotations:

  • carrying capacity destination management strategic planning
2.4.1 Carrying Capacity

Annotations:

  • Socially Physically Physologically Biologica
2.4.2 Destination Management

Annotations:

  • Development planning marketing management
2.4.3 Strategic Planning
2.5 The Competitive Destination

Annotations:

  • Richie and Crouch  7 key components 1. core resources and attractions 2. supporting factors and resources 3. qualifying and amplifying determinants or situational conditioners  4. destination policy, planning and development 5. destination management 6. comparative vs. competitive advantages 7. global vs competitive environment macro & micro
2.5.1 7 key Ritchie and Crouch

Annotations:

  • core resources and attractions supporting factors and resources  qualifying and amplifying determinants destination policy, planning and development destination management comparative versus competitive advantages global versus competitive enivironment
2.6 The Evolving Destination
2.6.1 TALC

Annotations:

  • exploration stage butlers destination life sycleinvolvement stagedevelopment stageconsolidation stagestagnation stagedecline stagerejuvenation stage
3 Kafli 3 - The Economic Consequences of Tourism
3.1 The Supply Side of Tourism
3.2 The Demand Side of Tourism
3.3 Measures of Demand

Annotations:

  • volume statistics value (expenditure) statistics visitor profile statistics
3.4 Tourism Multiplier

Annotations:

  • indirect effect direct effect induced effects The economic self-suffieciency of the destination
3.5 Income

Annotations:

  • Commodities, accomodation, food important and exports on goods interests, profits, foreign investments fares for carriers money transfer capital goods
3.6 Employment
3.7 The Economic cost of Tourism

Annotations:

  • opportunity cost overdependence/lack of diversity inflation and externalities
3.8 Tourism Satellite Account

Annotations:

  • measurements tourism GDP tourism ranking compared to other economic sectors the number of jobs created the amount of tourism investment tax revenues genereated by the industry touism consumption tourism impact on natioanls balance of payments characteristics of human resources
4 Kafli 4 - The Environmental Consequences of Tourism
4.1 The International Ecotourism Society (TIES)
4.2 Consequences of Tourism for the Environment
4.2.1 Positive/ Mutual Benefits

Annotations:

  • COnservation Environmental education built environment
4.2.1.1 Conservation
4.2.1.2 Environmental education
4.2.1.3 the built environment
4.2.2 Negative/Conflict

Annotations:

  • flora, fauna, water supply quality, land use, energy, built environment
4.2.2.1 Climate Change

Annotations:

  • Global warming deplation of the ozone layer addressing the climate change 1. carbon offset 2. mitigate 3. adapt
4.2.2.2 Water supply and quality

Annotations:

  • Tourist activity can have an adverse effect on water quality pump waste, litter, detergents in the water/sea movement of boats and jet skis petrol and oil break down into the water
4.2.2.3 Land use

Annotations:

  • The use of land for tourism take away from Agricultural production
4.2.2.4 Energy
4.2.2.5 The built environment

Annotations:

  • poor design traffic management fail to use local design principles architectural pollution local population is often segreated into other part of the town
4.2.2.6 Flora and Fauna
4.3 Environmental Impact Assessment and Auditing
4.3.1 EIA

Annotations:

  • Environmental impact assessment takes place before a development is begun and during its Construction US policy - late 1960¨s 1. identify all impacts of a development, including secondary ones 2. measure the relevant cariables, their magnitude 3. interpret the findings 4. communicate findings to all stakeholders in a clear non-tecnhical style tick box method
4.3.2 EA

Annotations:

  • Environmental auditing takes Place during Construction management tool providing a systematic, regular, objective evaluation of the environmental performance of a tourism prganisation, plant, building process or product
5 Kafli 5 - The Social and Cultural Consequences of Tourism

Annotations:

  • Understanding the role of the Tourist, the host and the encounter an awareness of the importance of the concept of the demonstration effect an appreciation of the theoretical framworks dveloped to understand the relationship between hosts and guests an understanding of the consequences of tourism for host societies awareness of the process and result of cultural change brought about tourism
5.1 Hosts

Annotations:

  • the host perception of the Tourists depend upon 3 factors: 1. the level of development of tourism 2. the number and types of Tourists 3. the pace of tourism development
5.2 The encounter
5.2.1 The demonstration effect

Annotations:

  • Tourists often demonstrate to the host that they are different by their dress, behaviour, manners and language and come from a Culture which the host should aspire to
5.2.2 Doxey's model

Annotations:

  • The level of euphoria the level of apathy the level of irritation the level of antagonism the final level
5.2.3 Attitudinal model

Annotations:

  • various opinions Active - passive positive - negative favorable: aggressice promotion and support of Tourist activity favourable: slight acceptance of and support for Tourist activity unfavourable: aggressive opposition to Tourist activity unfavourable: silent acceptance but opposition to Tourist activity
5.2.4 Staged Authenticity
5.3 Consequences for the host community
5.3.1 social structure
5.3.2 relocation of hosts
5.3.3 politics
5.3.4 morals
5.3.5 language
5.3.6 Resident's lifestyle
6 Kafli 13 - Tourism Marketing
6.1 4 Ps
6.1.1 Target Market

Annotations:

  • market segments must be measurable durable substantial competitive
6.1.2 The Tourism Product

Annotations:

  • The utilities and services offered to the market place 1. the core product 2. the tangible and intangible product 3. the augmented product the tourism product as a  tangible and intangible product destination amalgams the product as a series of stages experiences
6.1.3 Price

Annotations:

  • tourism is perishable and highly price elastic tactical and strategic approaches to pricing tactical: last seat selling strategic:  cost-oriented pricing demand oriented pricing discrimination pricing rate of return pricing
6.1.4 Promotion

Annotations:

  • plays a powerful role in influencing demand, reducing seasonality and creating loyalty promotion is about persuading, informing, reminding and communicating benefits to the potential consumer
6.1.5 Distribution
6.2 Evolution of marketing approaches

Annotations:

  • production oriented sales oriented marketing orientation societal marketing
6.3 Strategic Approaches

Annotations:

  • product market portfolios growth and development strategies positioning brandingr
6.4 Tactical level
7 Kafli 14 - Tourism Futures
7.1 Social Drivers of Change

Annotations:

  • demographic drivers social drivers
7.2 Political and Economic Drivers of Change

Annotations:

  • trade blocks and regionalism globalisation economic drivers
7.3 Science and the Environmental drivers of change

Annotations:

  • climate change depletion of natural resources loss of biodiversity
7.4 Tecnhological drivers of change
7.5 Transport Future
8 Kafli 6 Sustainable Tourism
8.1 3 pillars of sustainability
8.2 Types of tourism sustainability

Annotations:

  • very weak sustainability/strond tourism imperative weak sustainability / product led tourism strond sustainability / environmental led tourism very strong sustainability / limited tourism
8.3 Instrument of tourism sustainability

Annotations:

  • legislations and regulations and licensing certification schemes and self-declarations guidelines and codes of conduct reporting and auditing certification and ecolabels awards privare sector policies taxes and charges  etc
8.4 Role of the Government
8.5 Visitor Management
9 Kafli 7 - Attractions
9.1 5 main characteristics

Annotations:

  • cultural appraisals multiple use perishability economic significance ownership
9.2 Wanhill market perception

Annotations:

  • me-too attractions grand inspiration attraction new version attractions wonder attractions
9.3 Nature of core product

Annotations:

  • natural or man made attractions 1. natural attractions 2. man-made visitor attractions 3. man-made and purpose built attractions 4. event attractions
10 Kafli 8 - Accommodation
10.1 Lashley and Morrison

Annotations:

  • the private domain the commercial domain the social domain
11 Kafli 9 - Intermediaries
11.1 Tour Operators
11.2 Travel Agents
12 Kafli 12 Demand
12.1 Influences of consumer behaviour
12.2 models for consumer behaviour
12.2.1 Cognitive approaches
12.2.2 The habitual approach
12.2.3 The reinforcement approach
12.2.4 Sirakaya and woodside

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