Immunology

Atika Subari
Mind Map by Atika Subari, updated more than 1 year ago
Atika Subari
Created by Atika Subari over 5 years ago
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Description

immune responses in a body

Resource summary

Immunology
  1. first line of defense : External physical barrier
    1. secod line : internal barriers
      1. third line : specific immune responses
        1. humoral immunity
          1. protection through antibodies
            1. antigen binding sites -> epitopes -> function -> give protection
              1. blocks attachment of toxins
                1. blocks adhesion of bacteria
                  1. blocks adhesion of viruses
                    1. neutralisation of toxin
                      1. agglutination
                        1. opsonisation
                          1. activation of complement
                            1. antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity
                            2. cell mediated immunity
                              1. overcome by :
                                1. CD8 cytotoxic T cell
                                  1. granule exocytosis
                                    1. recognition and binding of target cells -> delivery of lethal hit -> death of target cells -> recycling of cytotoxic T cells
                                      1. -granule contain - perforin & serine proteases
                                      2. fas pathway
                                        1. Binding of TcR and antigen
                                          1. granule exocytosis
                                            1. triggers expression fas-ligand on Tc cell
                                              1. Fas on target cell cross-linked with fas-L
                                                1. APOPTOSIS
                                      3. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response
                                        1. recruit monocytes
                                          1. keep macrophages at site of infection
                                            1. activate the monocytes and macrophage
                                              1. 1.Activation of CD4 T cells
                                                1. 2. Migration of effector Th cells
                                                  1. 3. Recruitment and retention of monocytes
                                                    1. Activation of macrophage
                                                      1. 5. Elimination of pathogens in DTH reactions
                                        2. acquired immunity
                                          1. involves lymphocytes
                                            1. lymphocyte B
                                              1. B cell
                                                1. T cell
                                                  1. CD4 surface protein
                                                    1. TH1 cells
                                                      1. TH2 cells
                                                      2. CD8 surface protein
                                                        1. Tc cells
                                                  2. Organs of immune system
                                                    1. primary lymphoid organs
                                                      1. production sites
                                                        1. maturation sites (absence of antigen)
                                                        2. secondary lymphoid organs
                                                          1. maturation sites - antigen-driven immune cells
                                                        3. non-specific immune responses
                                                          1. internal innate immunity
                                                            1. 2nd line defense
                                                              1. mechanisms protection
                                                                1. physiological barrier
                                                                  1. phagocytosis
                                                                    1. inflammation
                                                                  2. external innate immunity
                                                                    1. 1st line defense
                                                                      1. prevent penetration of pathogens into tissue
                                                                    2. Antigen
                                                                      1. trigger specific immune response & react with product of responses
                                                                        1. Antigenic determinants sites
                                                                          1. carrier - antigen itself
                                                                          2. Antibody
                                                                            1. combine with antigenic determinants
                                                                              1. important components for specific immune responses
                                                                                1. Basic structure : Y
                                                                                  1. 2 Light chain (L) & 2 heavy chain (H)
                                                                                    1. classes
                                                                                      1. IgA
                                                                                        1. IgG
                                                                                          1. IgM
                                                                                            1. IgD
                                                                                              1. IgE
                                                                                            2. mechanism of antibody production
                                                                                              1. APC ingest antigen -> present to TH1 cells -> IL2 released -> stimulate proliferation and differentiation of TH cell into TH2 cells
                                                                                                1. secrete cytokines -> stimulte B cells -> antigen specific B-cell clone produced
                                                                                                  1. differentiation
                                                                                                    1. plasma cells (short-lived 1 week)
                                                                                                      1. antibody secreted
                                                                                                      2. memory cells (long-lifetime)
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