Transcription & Translation

humza tahir
Mind Map by humza tahir, updated more than 1 year ago
humza tahir
Created by humza tahir about 5 years ago
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AS - Level Biology Unit 1 Mind Map on Transcription & Translation, created by humza tahir on 04/05/2016.

Resource summary

Transcription & Translation
  1. Types of RNA
    1. mRNA
      1. single strand
        1. Bases - U, G, A ,C
          1. Synthesised from DNA
            1. Made in the nucleus of Eukrayotic cells
            2. tRNA
              1. clover leaf shape
                1. amino acid binding site
                  1. complementary anticodon to mRNA
                  2. rRNA
                    1. Ribosome - used in protein synthesis
                  3. Transcription - mRNA is formed
                    1. 1. DNA helicase breaks Hydrogen bonds in DNA
                      1. 2. RNA nucleotides bond (RNA polymerase bonds bases)
                        1. DNA bases - A = U, T = A. C = G, G = C
                          1. 3. RNA polymerase moves along DNA strand
                            1. 4. mRNA is fully formed when stop signal on DNA is reached
                            2. Translation - primary sequence is formed
                              1. 1. mRNA joins to rRNA
                                1. 2. Anticodon on tRNA bonds to complementary base on mRNA
                                  1. 3. Peptide bond forms between amino acids
                                    1. 4. Polypeptide chain is formed when stop codon is reached
                                    2. Introns & Exons
                                      1. Introns as non-coding bases
                                        1. Splicing pre-mRNA removes defects and any introns
                                        2. Exons are coding bases
                                        3. Universal - same triplet in all organisms
                                          1. Degenerate - more than 1 code for each amino acid
                                            1. Non-overlapping - base triplets don't share bases
                                              1. Mutations
                                                1. substitution - changing a base for another base
                                                  1. may code for same amino acid
                                                  2. Deletion - removing a base
                                                    1. new amino acid gets coded for
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