Global Population Change Case Studies

Ellie Perry
Mind Map by Ellie Perry, updated more than 1 year ago
Ellie Perry
Created by Ellie Perry over 5 years ago
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AS - Level Geography (Global Population Change) Mind Map on Global Population Change Case Studies, created by Ellie Perry on 05/15/2016.

Resource summary

Global Population Change Case Studies
  1. The Gambia's Youthful Population
    1. Causes
      1. Most people living in rural areas
        1. Families have economic reasons for more children as they can help on the farm
        2. Male dominated society - doesn't use or discuss contraceptives or family planning. Not much education on this
          1. Small country, not enough room for the population
          2. Effects
            1. Population has been kept down due to deaths and infant mortality
              1. However, developing healthcare, food and water resources is now leading to an increasing population
              2. Birth rate 40 per 1000, per year. 3 or 4 times the UK
                1. 11 mothers die for every 1000 children born
                  1. Life expectancy is 53 for men, 57 for women
                    1. Infant mortality is over 50 per 1000 per year
                      1. Population expected to double every 28 years
                        1. 92% dependency ratio
                          1. Not enough adults to provide the services for all the children
                          2. Male Nurse, 2 wives, 13 children. If each child has 6 surviving children there will be 27 times the population after 4 generations
                            1. Conditions
                              1. Government doesn't have the money to provide infrastructure for growing towns e.g. paved roads
                                1. Few can afford electricity
                                  1. Lack of good sanitation - can be more than one family sharing a toilet
                                    1. Not much privacy, all in the same room, no safety from intruders
                                      1. Nutrition problems with only rice to eat, due to money problems
                                        1. Trying to get all the children through primary school
                                          1. School not big enough, 3000 pupils only 26 classrooms
                                            1. Not enough school resources
                                            2. 1 in 10 children die before 5
                                              1. Wood being used as fuel, at a unsustainable rate
                                              2. Managing the youthful population
                                                1. Family planning awareness and easy access
                                                  1. Contraceptives subsidised by the World Health Organisation
                                                    1. Free vaccinations for every child
                                                      1. Outside funding to build clinics
                                                        1. Teaching mothers to space births - less children, allows time to recover
                                                          1. Education about forests and conservation
                                                            1. Trying to get everyone into primary school
                                                              1. Could lead to demographic dividend in the future - large educated working population
                                                              2. Policies and actions to avoid the crisis
                                                                1. WFP (World Food Programme)
                                                                  1. Better Nutrition for kids
                                                                    1. Better education
                                                                      1. High skilled workers, leading to an economy boost
                                                                        1. Demographic dividend
                                                                      2. Better health
                                                                        1. Less child death
                                                                          1. Less children per family
                                                                    2. Family Planning
                                                                      1. Higher use of contraception
                                                                        1. Less STD's
                                                                          1. Lower Birth Rate
                                                                          2. Better Maternal Health
                                                                            1. Possibility of working more and a higher income
                                                                              1. More money per family member
                                                                            2. Lower infant mortality rate
                                                                              1. Healthier children
                                                                                1. Better nutritioned and educated children
                                                                                  1. Decrease in children per family
                                                                      2. China - One Child Policy
                                                                        1. Introduced in 1979 , restricts couples in urban areas to only one child
                                                                          1. In rural areas, families are allowed to have 2 children if the first is a girl

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • Other exceptions include ethnic minorities and couples who both do not have siblings
                                                                            1. Couples who break the rules can face heavy fines, or possibly lose their property or their jobs
                                                                              1. It has led to forced abortions, female infanticide, and the under-reporting of female births
                                                                                1. The traditional preference for boys has also created gender imbalance as some couples opt for sex-selective abortions
                                                                                  1. In future, families will be allowed 2 children if 1 parent is an only child
                                                                                    1. 2015 - Now becoming 2 child policy
                                                                                    2. Effects
                                                                                      1. Positive
                                                                                        1. Birth rate decreased
                                                                                          1. Fertility rate fallen

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • 1970 - 5.75 2000 - 1.7
                                                                                            1. Population growth reduced
                                                                                              1. People have been saving more as less money is spent on children, it gives them more money to invest
                                                                                                1. Need to save money for the future, can no longer rely on children to care for parents in old age
                                                                                              2. Negative
                                                                                                1. Care for girls program, which aims at eliminating cultural discrimination against girls, through subsidies and education
                                                                                                  1. Unbalanced sex ratio

                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                    • 1982 - Boys 100:110 girls 1990 - Boys 100:111.7 girls More females dying in first year after birth than males
                                                                                                    1. Men finding it difficult to find a wife

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      • Imports wives for Chinese men, especially form Burma
                                                                                                      1. Growing ageing population

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • 1989 - 5% over 65 2002 - 7% over 65 2025 - 30% over 65
                                                                                                        1. Reliance on children to look after parents, replaced by social health care, retirement homes etc.
                                                                                                          1. Four-Two-One problem - one child is left to provide for parents and grandparents
                                                                                                            1. Children are seen as an investment for old age as not every worker is entitled to a pension
                                                                                                              1. Parents lavish too much on the child creating 'little emperors'
                                                                                                                1. Male children are seen as more desirable
                                                                                                                  1. Multiple births - no penalties for couples who have twins
                                                                                                                    1. Infanticide - Selective abortion of female foetuses
                                                                                                                      1. 70,000 children kidnapped every year and traded on the black market, girls cost much less than boys
                                                                                                                  2. East Devon - Ageing Population
                                                                                                                    1. Causes
                                                                                                                      1. Receives retirement migrants due to pull factors
                                                                                                                        1. The scenery and weather
                                                                                                                          1. Memories and family
                                                                                                                            1. Rural Area
                                                                                                                              1. Elderly people culture
                                                                                                                                1. This fuels the businesses and housing that are catered to older people, making it even more attractive for retired people
                                                                                                                                  1. Fairly affluent people,can afford to move
                                                                                                                                2. Effects
                                                                                                                                  1. Increase in proportion of people over 65 and some over 50
                                                                                                                                    1. Gender imbalance towards older females
                                                                                                                                    2. Push factors
                                                                                                                                      1. Cost of housing
                                                                                                                                        1. Lack of shops and entertainment
                                                                                                                                          1. Low paid jobs
                                                                                                                                            1. Causing 18-30 year old's to leave
                                                                                                                                            2. High dependency ratio of 85%

                                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                                              • UK - 55%
                                                                                                                                              1. 2nd highest concentration of over 50s in the UK
                                                                                                                                                1. Implications
                                                                                                                                                  1. Significant reduction in earnings
                                                                                                                                                    1. Less tax and national insurance to collect

                                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                      • Working people may need to pay more
                                                                                                                                                      1. Healthcare becomes catered towards elderly

                                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                                        • e.g. GP, hip replacement, social care
                                                                                                                                                        1. Particular types of housing, transport
                                                                                                                                                          1. Grey Pound, Grey Vote
                                                                                                                                                            1. Travel Agencies
                                                                                                                                                              1. Grandparents provide childcare
                                                                                                                                                                1. Not enough working age people to provide services
                                                                                                                                                              2. Newham and Richmond-upon-Thames
                                                                                                                                                                1. Local, not global
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Newham - Inner City
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Less educated
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Higher concentration of population
                                                                                                                                                                        1. More ethnically diverse
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Less affluent
                                                                                                                                                                            1. More unemployment
                                                                                                                                                                              1. More crimes
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Many residents relying on benefits and are deprived
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Youthful population
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. More concentrated housing
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Richmond - Suburban
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Wealthier
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Better Qualifications
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Detached, more expensive housing
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Less children, more elderly
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Higher proportion of White residents
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Higher percentage of employed residents
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. NHS under less pressure
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