Cells

A Cuffe
Mind Map by A Cuffe, updated more than 1 year ago
A Cuffe
Created by A Cuffe almost 4 years ago
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Description

Summary of cell section of BIOL1020

Resource summary

Cells
1 Building Blocks
1.1 Carbs
1.1.1 Sugars
1.2 Lipids
1.2.1 Fatty Acids
1.2.1.1 Saturated
1.2.1.2 Unsaturated
1.2.2 Phospholipids
1.2.2.1 Membranes
1.3 Amino acids
1.3.1 Proteins
1.3.1.1 Enzymes
1.4 Monomers
1.4.1 Polymerisation
1.4.1.1 Polymers
1.5 Nucleic Acids
1.5.1 DNA
1.5.2 RNA
2 Structure
2.1 Eukaryotes
2.1.1
2.1.1.1 Mitochondria

Annotations:

  • Site of respiration
2.1.1.2 Endoplasmic Reticulum

Annotations:

  •  Many proteins are synthesised on ribosomes in the ER Rough = Ribosomes Smooth = No ribosomes
2.1.1.3 Ribosomes
2.1.1.4 Lysosomes

Annotations:

  • Digestive compartment
2.1.1.5 Golgi Apparatus

Annotations:

  • Cell's 'postal service', where packaging and distributing of stuff e.g. proteins
2.1.1.6 Microtubules
2.1.1.7 Plants Only
2.1.1.7.1 Chloroplasts

Annotations:

  • Where photosynthesis occurs
2.1.1.7.2 Cell Wall

Annotations:

  • Cell stability
2.1.1.7.3 Central Vacuole

Annotations:

  • Storage and detoxification
2.1.1.8 Peroxisomes

Annotations:

  • Cell's detoxification centres
2.2 Prokayotes
2.2.1
2.2.1.1 Capsule
2.2.1.2 Cell Wall
2.2.1.3 Plasma Membrane
2.2.1.4 Nucleoid

Annotations:

  • Where main DNA sits
2.2.1.5 Ribosome
2.2.1.6 Plasmid

Annotations:

  • Small 'bits' of DNA
2.2.1.7 Fimbriae

Annotations:

  • Aka Cili. Allows cell to attach to surfaces.
2.2.1.8 Flangellum

Annotations:

  • Allows cell to move
3 Replication
3.1 DNA
3.1.1
3.1.1.1 Topoisomerase

Annotations:

  • Topoisomerase 'fixes' increased coiling caused by Helicase. Topoisomerase - too tight I fix
3.1.1.2 DNA primase

Annotations:

  • DNA primase synthesizes RNA primer Primase - Primer
3.1.1.3 Helicase

Annotations:

  • Helicase seperates DNA strands. Helicase-Helicopter-ChopChop
3.1.1.4 DNA-ligase

Annotations:

  • Joins the Okazaki DNA fragments Ligase - Likes fixing gaps
3.1.1.5 DNA-Polymerase
3.1.1.5.1 Pol 1

Annotations:

  • Replaces RNA primer with DNA
3.1.1.5.2 Pol 3

Annotations:

  •  RNA primer extended by DNA Polymerase III   
3.1.1.6 Lagging Strand
3.1.1.7 Leading Strand
3.2
3.2.1 G2

Annotations:

  • Second growth phase. Checkpoint 2 - Checks DNA synthesis went okay. Check cell is ready for mitosis.
3.2.2 G1

Annotations:

  • Cell growth. Checkpoint 1 - Checks division went okay and all organelles are functional. Check cell is ready for synthesis phase.
3.2.3 S

Annotations:

  • DNA synthesis phase. DNA is replicated and forms chromatin.
3.2.4 G0

Annotations:

  • Normal cell metabolism. No replication.
3.2.5 Mitosis

Annotations:

  • Main cell division made up of 6 different phases. Checkpoint M - Checks kinetochores are attached to spindle before anaphase.
3.2.5.1 Prophase

Annotations:

  • Prophase (Pairs) DNA condenses into Chromosomes. Centrosome divides and forms Mitotic spindle.
3.2.5.2 Prometaphase

Annotations:

  • Kinetochores on chromosomes bind to microtubules
3.2.5.3 Metaphase

Annotations:

  • Metaphase (middle) Mitotic Spindle alines chromosomes in middle of cell
3.2.5.4 Anaphase

Annotations:

  • Anaphase (Apart) Mitotic Spindle pulls sister chromatids apart and into opposite ends of the cell.
3.2.5.5 Telophase

Annotations:

  • Nuclear envelopes form around chromatids sets Cleavage furrow forms
3.2.6 Cytokinesis

Annotations:

  • Cell splits into two daughter cells
3.3 Regulation
3.3.1
3.3.1.1 Cancer

Annotations:

  • Loss of cell cycle control = cancer Cancer cells do not respond naturally to the body's control mechanisms.
3.3.1.1.1 Oncogenes

Annotations:

  • Genes that actively promote cell division. If not turned off at right times, can lead to cancer.
3.3.1.1.2 Tumor Suppressor Genes

Annotations:

  • Inhibit cell division Stop working can lead to cancer
3.3.1.1.2.1 p53

Annotations:

  • >50% human cancer patients have mutated p53 gene p53 prevents cells with damaged DNA from replicating
3.3.1.2
3.3.1.2.1 Cyclin

Annotations:

  • - Regulatory unit - Production begins during S phase - Accumulates during S and G2 phases. - Binds with CDK during G2 phase. - Once bound and activated, forms MPF. - Broken down after M phase
3.3.1.2.2 Cyclin-Dependant- Kinase (CDK)

Annotations:

  • - Catalytic subunit - Constant concentration - Binds with Cyclin in sufficient Cyclin concentrations. - Once bound, helps cell move past G2 checkpoint.
3.3.1.2.3 MPF

Annotations:

  • - Maturation (or Mitosis) promoting factor - Forms from binding of cyclin + CDK - Activates mitosis proteins - Triggers mitosis by phosphorylating proteins:  > promotes envelope breakdown during prophase.  > May help chromosomes condense and mitotic spindle to form in prophase.  > Cyclin component breaks down in anaphase.- Broken down into cyclin & CDK after mitosis
4 Cellular Energy
4.1 Gibbs Free Energy
4.1.1 Negative DeltaG
4.1.1.1
4.1.2 Positive DeltaG
4.1.2.1
4.2 Metabolism
4.2.1 Cellular Respiration
4.2.1.1 Cytosol
4.2.1.1.1 Stage 1: Glycolysis
4.2.1.1.1.1 Uses Glucose
4.2.1.1.1.2 Produces
4.2.1.1.1.2.1 2 ATP
4.2.1.1.1.2.2 2 NADH
4.2.1.1.1.2.3
4.2.1.2 Mitochondrial Matrix
4.2.1.2.1 Stage 2a: Pyruvate Oxidisation
4.2.1.2.1.1 Uses
4.2.1.2.1.1.1 2 Pyruvate
4.2.1.2.1.2 Produces
4.2.1.2.1.2.1 CO2
4.2.1.2.1.2.2
4.2.1.2.1.2.3 NADH
4.2.1.2.2 Stage 2b: Citric Acid Cycle
4.2.1.2.2.1 Uses
4.2.1.2.2.1.1 Acetyl-CoA
4.2.1.2.2.2 Produces
4.2.1.2.2.2.1 2 CO2
4.2.1.2.2.2.2 FADH2
4.2.1.2.2.2.3 3 NADH
4.2.1.2.2.2.4 ATP
4.2.1.3 Mitochondrial Membranes
4.2.1.3.1 Stage 3: Oxidative Phosphorylation
4.2.1.3.1.1 Electron Transport Chain
4.2.1.3.1.1.1 Proton Gradient
4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1 Chemiosmosis
4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Produces
4.2.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 ATP
4.2.1.3.1.1.2 Uses
4.2.1.3.1.1.2.1 NADH
4.2.1.3.1.1.2.2 FADH2
4.2.2 Photosynthesis
4.2.2.1 'Light' Reaction
4.2.2.1.1 Produces
4.2.2.1.1.1 ATP
4.2.2.1.1.2 NAD(P)H
4.2.2.2 'Dark' Reactions
4.2.2.2.1 Uses
4.2.2.2.1.1 ATP
4.2.2.2.1.2 NAD(P)H
4.2.2.2.1.3 CO2
4.2.2.2.2 Produces
4.2.2.2.2.1 Sugars
4.3 ATP
4.3.1 Energy
4.3.1.1 ADP
4.3.1.2 Phosphate
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