Approaches & Methods for ESL

Krisi Handley
Mind Map by Krisi Handley, updated more than 1 year ago
Krisi Handley
Created by Krisi Handley about 5 years ago
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Module 7 Mind Map

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Approaches & Methods for ESL
  1. Cognitive Approach
    1. The cognitive theorists help teachers understand how the students are processing new information, connections they are making to prior knowledge, and what beliefs students have about learning the second language. The cognitive theories believe that learning is an active, dynamic process. This approach is learner centered rather than teacher centered.
      1. Method
        1. CALLA
          1. Focuses on what is going on in students' minds rather than a response to stimuli
            1. 3 Main Components
              1. 1. Topics from the Major Content Subjects
                1. Aligned with state standards as well as TESOL standards
                2. 2. Academic Language Development
                  1. Developing all 4 language domains through cognitvely demanding activities
                  2. 3. Learning Strategies
                    1. Incorporating learning strategies and techniques for the students that were research proven
                  3. Cooperative Learning
                    1. Builds on background knoweldge
                      1. Inquiry Based
                    2. Focuses on types of memory
                      1. Working Memory
                        1. Initial storage process in the brain that selects where the information will be stored
                        2. Short-Term
                          1. Long-Term
                            1. Declarative
                              1. Facts & Information
                                1. Learned by focusing on existing memory structures and building on those
                                2. Procedural
                                  1. How to Do Things
                                    1. Learned by practicing a skill that is goal-orientated and meaningful
                              2. Grammatical Approach
                                1. This approach is based on teacher centered instruction. It is also based on the students memorizing grammar forms, definitions, etc. The grammar based theories feel that the students acquire the second language when taught the language explicitly. The focus is on the language, not the use of the language.
                                  1. Behaviorists Theorists
                                    1. Outdated
                                      1. Methods
                                        1. Direct Method
                                          1. All instruction is done in target langauge
                                          2. Grammar Translation
                                            1. Learning is done by translating to and from the target language
                                              1. How I learned Spanish in high school
                                            2. Emphasis on target lenaguage
                                              1. Characterized by a lot of memorization
                                              2. Communicative Approach
                                                1. This approach is also known as the social learning approach. The theories feel that the students acquire the second language socially and from others. The focus is on the students. The purpose of acquiring the language is for communication.
                                                  1. Methods
                                                    1. Integrated Content Based
                                                      1. Thematic Unit Centered
                                                        1. Content Based
                                                        2. Covers all 4 language domains
                                                          1. Links language with content
                                                          2. Sheltered Method of Instruction
                                                            1. Hands-on Activities
                                                              1. Cooperative Learning
                                                                1. Guarded Vocabulary
                                                                  1. Visuals
                                                                    1. SDAIE
                                                                      1. Specially designed academic instruction in English
                                                                      2. SIOP
                                                                        1. The Sheltered Observation Protocol
                                                                          1. Comprehensible Input
                                                                      3. Vygotsky
                                                                        1. Social Learning
                                                                        2. Student Centered
                                                                          1. Much of instruction is done in target language
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