Methods and Approaches for Teaching ESL

Kyla Pharris
Mind Map by Kyla Pharris, updated more than 1 year ago
Kyla Pharris
Created by Kyla Pharris about 4 years ago


Methods and Approaches for Teaching ESL

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Methods and Approaches for Teaching ESL
1 Approach
1.1 An approach is a philosophical orientation to instruction that serves as a guide for choosing among methods that considered to be consistent with the tenets of the theory and scientifically based research that ground the philosophy.
1.1.1 Grammatical Grammatical approach is based on teacher centered instructions. The students are ased to memorize language rules and and sentence patterns. It is usually learned through repetition drills/practices and memorization.
1.1.2 Cognitve Cognitve approach is based on learner centered which focus on explicit teaching of learning strategies in communicative ways. It is a CALLA method that maximize content and language objectives. Some techniques that are usually use with this approach are word walls, KWL charts , and outlines.
1.1.3 Language Experience The language experience approach is based philosophically on the notion that students' prior expreience needs to be used as a bridge to new ideas and concepts. allow students to understand that whatever is said can also be written as well as whatever written can also be read. With this approach students talk about person experiences and later used as a reading text for the class.
1.1.4 Balanced Reading The balanced reading apporach is based on evidence that children do not learn to read in only one way, but individual variation in literacy development is normal. This appoarch instruction should be tailored to each child's preferred initial reading. This apporach combines phonics instruction with reading authentic texts that includes both stories and informational writing.
1.1.5 Process Writing The process of writing in the CALLA book talks about how students learn that writing involves thinking, reflection, and multiple revisions. I can use this apporach by modeling the writing process. I can thinkng out loud about there ideas and write them down. Then organize them, create a draft, read over it, and make revisions. Then allow the students to make comments and revise it again. This let the students learn to write by discussions, sharing, and conferencing within the class.
1.1.6 Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is based on students working in carefully selected and organized groups on learning tasks that are structured. This task allows multiple opportunities for students to engage in active practice of language and content within a social conext. Setting up cooperative activities makes it possible for students to help each other understand and complete a task.
1.1.7 Inquiry The inquiry approach is based on learner centered activities in which the students construct understanding of ideas and relationships. This approach allows students to move through an inquiry cycle designed to help them learn from experiences instead of teacher and textbook.
1.1.8 Communicative Communicative approach is based on student centered emphasis on communication and meaningful acqusition of knowledge. It is a shelter instruction methods that focus on hands-on activites, scaffolding, cooperative learning, and guarded vocabulary.
1.1.9 Standards-Based Instruction Standards-based instructions approach is based on the national and/or state standards for each content subject area. It identifies what the students should be able to do or know at each grade level. The standards for ESL are based on the TESOL standards which are broken into grade level clusters ans well as level of language proficiency. The state standards are a clear understanding of what I should be teaching in each content subject at each grade level.
2 Methods
2.1 A method is a framework that has specific strategies and techniques associated with it; a method constitutes one translation of an approach into professional practice.
2.1.1 Grammar Translation The grammar translation focus on grammatical accuracy during the eighteenth century. The teachers would first give the students the language rules and have the students to memorize a list of vocabulary words. The students will apply the language rules and exceptions, as well as the vocabulary terms to the translation of written text. The grammar translation method is apart of the grammar approach. It remians me of giving students spelling words to memorize. Do they really understand the words and can use them or did they just remember them for the test.
2.1.2 Auduolingual The auduolingual is also apart of the grammar approach. It was created during the World War II because U.S. troops who where overseas needed a quick way of learning foreign languages. This method was based on pattern drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a highly sequential manner. They viewed language acquisition as the recall and memorization of the language patterns.
2.1.3 ICB Integrated Content-Baed The ICB method is a means of providing content-based second language instruction using academic thematic units. This method is grounded in the communication approach. A ICB unit is based on a central topic, idea, or theme. It is a set of related learning activities and experiences that allows students to recieve comprehensible input to assist the mastery of key content concepts while learning the language necessary for academic success. When choosing a topic or content, I have to make sure that it is promotes the students cognitive and linguistic abilities and gives them the opportunity to incorporate a four domains of speaking listening, reading, and writing.
2.1.4 SIOP Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol SIOP was designed to provide an explicit and consistent framework to identify effective practices for sheltered instructions. This method of is apart of the communication approach. It is the most comprehensive form of sheltered instruction because it goes beyond techniques and strategies to include the major indicators of well-developed lessons for CLD students. It is a well develop lesson plan that gives the students the ability to practice all of the four domains and as well as practice with hands-on material with a clear explanations of the academic task, learn key vocabulary, and receive ongoing feedback with formal and informal assessments.
2.1.5 CALLA The CALLA method is designed to enrich the language that CLD students can use for academic communication. It was designed to further the abilities to comprehend various content areas and be successful in those subject areas. This method also focus on the four literacy domains of speaking, listening, writing, and reading. It is broken into 3 primary components; topic of major content, development on academic language skills, and explicit instructions in the learning strategies. Explicit instruction can be done by scaffolding a lesson.
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