Arthropods

Emma Gray
Mind Map by Emma Gray, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma Gray
Created by Emma Gray over 3 years ago
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Description

Masters Degree Parasitology (Arthropods) Mind Map on Arthropods, created by Emma Gray on 03/27/2017.

Resource summary

Arthropods
1 Crustaceans (5 pairs of legs)
1.1 Copepoda (ectoparasites of fish)
1.1.1 Lorna sp. "anchor worm" on aquarium fish
1.2 Isopoda ectoparasites of fish)
1.2.1 Condopphilus imbricatus "tongue biters" in mouths of marine fish
1.3 Pentastomida (internal parasites of reptiles, birds, and mammals)
1.3.1 Linguatula serrata "tongue worm" of the dog. Found in nasal cavity

Annotations:

  • Clinical signs: nasal discharge, irritation Diagnosis: find eggs in faeces Treatments: Ivermectin
1.3.2 Armillifer armillatus parasite of reptiles

Annotations:

  • have small mammal or arthropod intermediate hosts (intermediate host must be eaten by definitive host
2 Insects (3 pairs of legs)
2.1 Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitos)
2.1.1 Nematocera

Annotations:

  • Small flies (up to 3mm) Antennae long and slender  Larvae and/or pupae are AQUATIC females are parasitic - need blood meal Effects on the host: Irritation due to bites Blood loss Vectors 

Attachments:

2.1.1.1 Ceratopogonidae
2.1.1.1.1 Culicoides "biting midges"

Annotations:

  • Australians also call these sandflies! Identification: SPOTTED WINGS Life cycle: larvae develop in water, mud, sand, or dung Males/Female feed on nectar. Females need blood meal
2.1.1.1.1.1 Maritime Species

Annotations:

  • They do not carry any diseases but are a nuisance. Not host specific Breed in saline waters
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 C. immaculatus
2.1.1.1.1.1.2 C. marmoratus
2.1.1.1.1.2 Native Species

Annotations:

  • Breed in fresh water Feed on Marsupials and on stock Abundant in Northern Australia in wet season Significance: Transmit the nematode Onchocerca gibsoni
2.1.1.1.1.2.1 C. marksi
2.1.1.1.1.3 Introduced Species

Annotations:

  • most important of the 3 because they are very efficient vectors:They transmit Blue tongue and can cause "Queensland itch"(in horses).  C. brevitarsis has a wider distribution than C.wadai. However C. brevitarsis is an inefficient vector and C. wadai is an effective vector.  Queensland itch of horses is caused by a hypersensitivity to the bites of these introduced Culicoides sp. Lesions will primarily be found around the tail, rump, poll and ears. Management: stable horses and/or use repellents  Breed in cattle dung
2.1.1.1.1.3.1 C. brevitarsis
2.1.1.1.1.3.2 C. wadai
2.1.1.2 Simulliidae "Black flies"

Annotations:

  • They have a characteristic humped back appearance  Life cycle is aquatic and they occur along rivers
2.1.1.2.1 Simulium
2.1.1.2.1.1 S. Damnosum

Annotations:

  • Major pest species in Africa  Transmits O. volvulus to man (in Africa) Blindness Causes severe iriitation
2.1.1.2.2 Austrosimulium
2.1.1.2.2.1 A. pestilens

Annotations:

  • Major pest species in Australia Significance: Transmits Onchocerca gutturosa of cattle Severe irritation
2.1.1.3 Psychodidae
2.1.1.3.1 Phelbotomus "sand fly"

Annotations:

  • Identified by its hairy wings In Australia they are all reptile feeders (this may not be accurate as we may have just not found evidence of other feeders yet) Significance: they are known to transmit leishmania
2.1.1.4 Culicidae "mosquitoes"

Annotations:

  • Females feed on blood They are significant because they are vectors!! Viruses: yellow fever, equine encephalitis, dengue, myxoma, zika, Ross Rover, Barmah Forest, Murray Valley encephalitis Protozoa: malariaNematodes: Dirofilaria immitisIrritation and Blood lossControl is by removing breeding sites and use of repellents
2.1.1.4.1 Aedes
2.1.1.4.2 Anopheles
2.1.1.4.3 Culex
2.1.2 Brachycera
2.1.2.1 Tabanidae "March flies"

Annotations:

  • Large biting mouth parts
2.1.2.1.1 Tabanus

Annotations:

  • Significance: irritation  Blood loss  Vectors for trypanosomes, anthrax, and some nematodes  Very large, slow flies Short antennae Very painful bite Larval stages aquatic Coasts and forests along creeks 
2.1.3 Cyclorrhapha "true flies"

Annotations:

  • Flies that breed in vegetable or animal material, both living and dead
2.1.3.1 Oestridae "bot flies"

Annotations:

  • It is the LARVAE that ARE PARASITIC Larvae are endoparasitic Large flies (May resemble bees) Vestigial mouth parts (cannot feed) Lay eggs or are viviparpous (give birth to live young) Three larval stages inside the host -> pupate on the ground
2.1.3.1.1 Gasterophilus "Horse bots"

Annotations:

  • - Flies active in summer - Only live for a few days - Can lay many eggs First instar migrate through mouth and gums Second instar attaches in stomach Third instar in stomach
  • TREATMENT: Organophosphates (dichlorvos, trichlorphon) Macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin)
  • Control: Treat in winter when flies are absent Washing or grooming to remove eggs of little value 
2.1.3.1.1.1 G. intestinalis "common bot"

Annotations:

  • Eggs yellow, anywhere on front of body, hatch when licked Larvae are RED, occur in STOMACH, 2 rows of spines
2.1.3.1.1.1.1 Life cycle of Common bot
2.1.3.1.1.2 G. nasalis "throat bot"

Annotations:

  • eggs pale, laid between mandibles, hatch spontaneously Larvae are YELLOW, occur in DUODENUM, 1 row of spines 
2.1.3.1.1.3 G. haemorrhoidalis "nose bot"(rare)

Annotations:

  • Eggs black, laid around lips, hatch spontaneously
2.1.3.1.2 Oestridae
2.1.3.1.2.1 Oestrus ovis "Nasal bot of Sheep"

Annotations:

  • Fly viviparous Lays larvae on external nares Larva crawls into nasal cavity All larval stages found in nasal cavity Third install sneezed out Pupae develop in soil May occasionally be zoonoticFlies active in summer
  • Effect on sheep: - agitates sheep when laying larvae - chronic nasal discharge - predisposes to pneumonia
  • Treatment: - organophosphates - macrocyclic lactones - trematocides (rafoxanide, closantel)
2.1.3.1.3 Hypoderma

Annotations:

  • NOT PRESENT IN AUSTRALIA Common in Europe, Asia and North America
2.1.3.1.3.1 H. bovis "Northern cattle grub"
2.1.3.1.3.2 H. lineatum "common cattle grub"
2.1.3.2 Muscidae "flies"
2.1.3.2.1 Muscinae
2.1.3.2.1.1 Musca domestica "housefly"

Annotations:

  • - Involved in mechanical transmission of pathogens - intermediate hosts of nematodes and chested
  • Can cause: Nasal scald and fly dermatitis
2.1.3.2.1.2 Musca vetustissima "bush fly"

Annotations:

  • - breed in cattle dung - overwinter in northern Australia - causes similar problems to M.domestica (nasal scald and fly dermatitis)
2.1.3.2.2 Stomoxinae
2.1.3.2.2.1 Stomoxys calcitrans "stable fly"

Annotations:

  • Breed in decaying organic matter Effect on host: both sexes feed on blood Bite anything (mammals) -> horses and dogs commonly affected
2.1.3.2.2.2 Haematobia exigua "buffalo fly"

Annotations:

  • - Small grey fly - rigid, biting mouthparts - introduced from South East Asia - closely related to: H. irritants (of Europe & America) H.minuta (southern Africa) - feed on cattle, buffalo, horses and dogs
  • Features of life cycle: - flies remain on host - die in 1-2 days away from host - leave host to lay eggs - breed in cow dung - emerging flies have 1-2h to find a host - adults live for 10-20 days - need temperatures >20'C - life cycle takes 7-11 days
  • Effect on host: - Bites are painful - Cattle rub to relieve irritation  - 2000-3000 flies a heavy infection - loss of condition or delayed fattening - milk production drop VECTOR: Trypanosoma evansi  and of nematode Stephanofilaria sp.
  • Control: Chemical dip/ Spray every few weeks. Fly traps (tunnel trap, Bob's trap) Ear tags impregnated with insecticides Dung beetles
2.1.3.2.2.2.1 FEATURED IN A VIDEO: life cycle of the buffalo fly
2.1.3.2.2.2.2 Distribution of the Buffalo fly
2.1.3.3 Hippoboscidae "louse flies"

Annotations:

  • - exclusively parasitic (blood feeders) - feet with strong claws - females viviparous - larvae pupate immediately  Some have wings, some do not
2.1.3.3.1 Melophagus ovinus "sheep ked"

Annotations:

  • NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH LICE
  • No wings! - live in wool - pupal case attached to wool - pupae hatch in 19-36 days - live 4-5 months
  • Effects on host: - blood feeders  - cause anaemia - stain wool ("ticky wool") - transit Trypanosoma (protozoan)
2.1.3.4 Calliphoridae "blowflies"

Annotations:

  • Important environmentally Breed in decaying organic matter Adults feed on decaying organic material or nectar Faculative parasites (usually)
  • Major diseases: - Blow fly strike of sheep (cutaneous myiasis) - Screw worm fly (exotic)
2.1.3.4.1 Green species
2.1.3.4.1.1 1' Lucilia sericata

Annotations:

  • INTRODUCED - urban areas
2.1.3.4.1.2 2" Chrysomya rufifacies

Annotations:

  • NATIVE - sometimes 1' The hairy maggot blowfly Larva feed on other maggots
2.1.3.4.1.3 1' Lucilia cuprina

Annotations:

  • INTRODUCED - 90% of strikes Almost obligate parasite  Can breed in carcasses but out competed
  • Life cycle: - eggs laid in batches in fleece - laid in afternoon, hatch at night - first install needs protein meal (cannot penetrate skin) - second instar penetrates skin (feeds on tissue) - third install matures by 2-19 days - drops to ground at night - burrows into soil - pupates (3-7 days) - overwinters as pupa - emerging females need protein meal to produce eggs - only mate once - most strikes are "covert" and heal - secondary flies can invade and extend the wound - entire life cycle 17 days (in summer)
  • Clinical sign: - days 1-2 sheep irritated - day 3 temperature rise - day 4 maggots drop, smell (!) - day 6 temperature falls - healing slow but complete .........in bad years, mortalities can be up to 30%
  • Pathogensis: - normal sheep are not struck by flies - need olfactory stimulus to attract flies - need proteinaceous exudate on skin for first larval instars Types of strike: - breech strike - body strike - poll/head strike (rams) - puzzle strike (rams & wethers) Breech strike - commonest form of strike  - soiling of fleece by urine or faeces - scouring due to nematodes (can reduce prevalence 10 fold) - wrinkles predispose to strike
  • Body strike: - preceded by "fleece rot" or dermatitis - prolonged wetting of skin --keratin lifts-- protein exudates - pseudomonas spp. proliferate and provide olfactory stimulus (also stain wool) - body conformation ("sway back") and wrinkles predispose to strike - fleece characters (wax content) important
  • Seasonal prevalence: - fly numbers determined by temperature and rainfall - flies over winter as pupae, emerge in spring - usually 3 generations in spring - summer too dry for eggs and first instars - autumn moister & cooler 2 generations - pattern of infection generally bimodal - if summer is wet, flies active all summer
  • CONTROL: 1. Render sheep less susceptible        -crutching       - correct tail docking       - removal of conformation faults       - breed for sheep with suitable fleece characteristics ***mulesing is the most effective method 2. Reducing fly numbers       - treat all strikes seen early in season (?covert strikes)       - burn or deeply bury carrion       - fly traps (drums with meat laced with insecticide)       - genetic manipulation (strike male methods, olfactory genes)       - vaccines (currently under investigation)       - chemicals - organophosphates (resistance widespread)                         - growth regulators (cyromazine; Vetrazin)
2.1.3.4.1.3.1 Life cycle of L. cuprina
2.1.3.4.1.4 2" Chrysomya varipes

Annotations:

  • NATIVE
2.1.3.4.2 Brown species
2.1.3.4.2.1 2' Calliphora stygia

Annotations:

  • NATIVE - sometimes 1'
2.1.3.4.2.2 2' Calliphora augur

Annotations:

  • NATIVE sometimes 1' Brown fly with blue streak on abdomen 
  • Distribution:  - Eastern Victoria  - NSW  - Tasmania
2.1.3.4.2.3 C. nociva

Annotations:

  • Looks like C. augur but different distribution Western Victoria, SA, WA
2.1.3.4.3 Black species
2.1.3.4.3.1 3' Ophyra spp.

Annotations:

  • NATIVE
2.1.3.4.4 Blue species
2.1.3.4.4.1 3' Calliphora vicina

Annotations:

  • INTRODUCED - urban areas
2.1.3.4.4.2 Chrysomya bezziana "screw worm fly"

Annotations:

  • THIS WAS FEATURED IN A FILM **NOT PRESENT in AUSTRALIACommon name: the Old World Screw Worm Fly-Oral myiasis
2.1.3.4.5 Flesh flies
2.1.3.4.5.1 3' Sarcophaga spp.

Annotations:

  • NATIVE
2.2 Siphonaptera (fleas)

Annotations:

  • FLEAS ARE NOT HOST SPECIFIC Features of fleas:  - head, thorax, abdomen  - wingless ('aptera')  - laterally compressed  - heavily chitinised  - legs with claws  - adapted for jumping
  • Lifecycle: - eggs fall to ground - larvae hatch - recognised by "anal struts" - 3 larval stages (instars) - feed on detritus - pupal stage - adult flea emerges - can survive long time without host - jump onto host - female needs blood meal  
  • Obligate parasites - in order for the female to lay eggs she needs to have a blood meal Can remain on host (permanent) or spend time away from host (intermittent) Effect on the host:  - generally not host specific  - capillary feeders, saliva contains anticoagulant  - blood loss, irritation, hypersensitivity 
2.2.1 Ctenocephalides

Annotations:

  • Most of the population is in the environment  eggs 50% larvae 35% pupae 10% adults 5% - most comon fleas on cats and dogs - development is temperature dependant  - flea problems occur in summer - pupae stimulated to hatch by vibrations
  • Effect on host:  - papular dermatitis in man (household pest)  - Millary eczema in cats       -> due to salivary antigen       -> develop type I hypersensitivity       -> incessant scratching, hairloss        -> base of tail, thighs
  • CONTROL: MUST DEAL WITH OFF-HOST POPULATION On the host: 1. Repellents 2. Insecticides, Powders & Shampoos, Flea collars, Oral & topical treatments 3. Insect growth regulators & insect development inhibitors      - topical treatment > Lufenuron      - Flea collar > include methoprene      - Oral treatment > cyromazine  4. Flea salivary antigen injections desensitize dog
  • Flea Insecticide drugs Fipronil Dogs and Cats -> CNS distruption = Frontline monthly topical spot-on Imidacloprid Dogs and Cats -> Nicotinic receptor disruption = Advantage monthly spot-on or an 8month collar Selamectin Dogs and Cats = Revolution Synthetic pyrethrins: SOME FORMS ARE TOXIC TO CATS
  • Environment: 1. House        fumigants (pyrethroids)       +/- growth regulator (methoprene)       vacuum 2. Bedding       wash 3. Outside       sprays (OPs, pyrethroids)
2.2.1.1 Ct. felis

Annotations:

  • Identification: The Ct. felis has its first two combs are similar length  The head is narrower 
2.2.1.2 Ct. canis

Annotations:

  • Comb 2 is longer than comb 1 on Ct. canis
2.2.1.3 The life cycle can be as short as 10.14 days
2.2.2 Echidnophaga
2.2.2.1 E. gallinacea "stick-fast fleas"

Annotations:

  • Identification: No combs, stumpy face, short thorax Poultry stick-fast flea Stay attached at a single site Not host specific Common in hot dry areas
2.2.3 Pulex
2.2.3.1 P. irritans "the human flea"

Annotations:

  • Identification: no combs NOT HOST SPECIFIC Hosts:  - common in free range piggeries
2.2.4 Spilopsyllus
2.2.4.1 S. cuniculi "the rabbit flea"

Annotations:

  • Identification: genal comb "verticle" Can be found on cats- introduced- vector of myxomatosis- host specific- only breeds when host breeds- breeding of flea initiated by hormones in rabbit blood
  • This fleas breeding cycle is linked with the breeding of rabbits! 
2.3 Phthiraptera (lice)

Annotations:

  • LICE ARE VERY HOST SPECIIC
2.3.1 Anoplura

Annotations:

  • Sucking lice Identification: head narrow and pointed Feed on blood or tissue fluids on mammals
  • You can treat these lice with Oral OR topical treatments
  • Habitat: coarse hairs (mane, tail) -> eggs are readily visible Colour/Size: large, black or blue Transmission: contact (except L.pedalis on pasture, and H. acini on grooming equipment)
2.3.1.1 Linognathus
2.3.1.1.1 L. ovillus
2.3.1.1.2 L. pedalis
2.3.1.1.3 L. stenopsis

Annotations:

  • Lice of the goat
2.3.1.1.4 L. africanus

Annotations:

  • Lice of the goat
2.3.1.1.5 L. vituli

Annotations:

  • Catlle lice Sucking lice:  - maximum numbers in winter  - head, neck, back, tail  - cause rubbing  - larger numbers on sick animals
2.3.1.1.6 L. setosus

Annotations:

  • Lice of the dog
2.3.1.2 Haematopinus
2.3.1.2.1 Haematopinus spp.

Annotations:

  • Catlle lice Sucking lice:  - maximum numbers in winter  - head, neck, back, tail  - cause rubbing  - larger numbers on sick animals
2.3.1.2.2 H. asini

Annotations:

  • Transmitted on riding/ grooming equipment. Larger than the other horse lice Damalinia equi
2.3.1.2.3 H. suis

Annotations:

  • NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH A TICK Sucking lice of PIGS. LICE HAS 6 LEGS (ticks have 8)
  • - very large - mistaken for a tick - cause red spots on skin - transmits pox and swine fever
2.3.1.3 Solenpotes
2.3.1.3.1 S. capillatus

Annotations:

  • Catlle lice Sucking lice:  - maximum numbers in winter  - head, neck, back, tail  - cause rubbing  - larger numbers on sick animals
2.3.1.4 Human lice
2.3.1.4.1 Phthirus pubis
2.3.1.4.2 Pediculus humanus
2.3.2 Mallophaga

Annotations:

  • BITING LICE Identification: head broad, rounded Feed on epidermis, feathers on birds & mammals
  • Only topical treatments will be effective on these biting louse 
  • Habitat: fine body hairs (eggs concealed) Colour/Size: small, yellow Transmission: Contact
  • There are also Lice of poultry - THEY ARE ALL BITING LICE They cause: - irritation  - feather loss - poor growth - reduced egg production TREATMENT - dust baths - aerosols  - vaporisers 
2.3.2.1 Damalinia
2.3.2.1.1 D. ovis

Annotations:

  • Features:  -small yellow louse -30% sheep properties affected -medium rainfall areas
  • Effect on host: - Feeds on stratum corneum - hypersensitivity -irritaion, rubbing -"pulled wool" -reduce wool production 
  • Diagnosis: -Find lice on sheep - part wool and look (need to look in several places on the sheep) - minimum detection level 1000 lice per sheep - lice colonial and photophobic
  • Biology: - eggs hatch in 10 days - entire life cycle 35 days - can live off host for 1 week - optimum temperature 37'C (lower numbers in summer) - at low temp, eggs do not develop - fleece maintains temp of 37'C - above 30 few eggs laid - fleece temperatures in summer can be 45'C (lower numbers in summer) - if humidity > 90% eggs do not hatch - heavy rain can kill eggs - exposure to sunlight kills lice - shearing removes 30-50% of lice - after shearing lice exposed to UV radiation 
  • CONTROL: -Treat after shearing       plunge dip/ shower dip (sheep                  must be thoroughly wet       "pour-on", "backline" treatment           uses SPs - concentration           gradient around the body          (MUST NOT UNDER DOSE)         Heavier sheep need a higher         dose if the treatment is to        reach around the stomach 
2.3.2.1.2 D. caprae

Annotations:

  • Lice of the goat
2.3.2.1.3 D. bovis
2.3.2.1.4 D. equi

Annotations:

  • Transmitted by contact! The other flea horse lice Haematopinus acini is larger than D. equi
2.3.2.2 Trichodectes canis

Annotations:

  • Lice of the dog
2.3.2.3 Heterodoxus spiniger

Annotations:

  • Lice of the dog
2.3.2.4 Felicola subrostratus

Annotations:

  • Lice of the cat
3 Arachnids (4 pairs of legs)

Annotations:

  • Features of arachnids:  - 4 pairs of legs (3 pairs in larva) - no antennae  - no wings - body divided into 2 parts        gnathosoma (=capitulum)        idiosoma (=the rest)
3.1 Ixodida "Ticks"

Annotations:

  • Sub-class: Acari (contains ticks and mites) Order: Ixodida Superfamily: Ixodoidea 
  • Features of Ticks: -Obligate parasites -Most of life cycle is spent off host (in most cases) -Variable host specificity (specialist/ generalist)
  • Basic tick life cycle: Larva (6 legs) Nymph (8 legs) Male and female (8legs) There are 1, 2, and 3 host ticks
  • Pathogenic effects: - blood loss (tick can take 5ml of blood) - irritation, hypersensitivity) - damage hide - reduce growth rate of host - produce toxins (paralysis) - transmit protozoans
3.1.1 Argasidae "soft ticks"

Annotations:

  • "soft ticks" no scutum mouthparts underneath rapid feeders (hours)
3.1.1.1 Argas persicus " fowl tick"

Annotations:

  • Identification: Mouth parts ventral (cannot see from dorsal aspect) Body has distinct margins (as seen in accompanying picture
  • - eggs laid in cracks - hatch in 3 weeks - larvae feed for 5-10days - moult in crevices  - nymphs feed in 2h - nymph and adult nocturnal  - larvae survive 3 months without food - adults survive 3-5 years without food!
  • Effect on host: -Anaemia -Irritation -Redued egg production  -Paralysis caused by larvae They transmit Borrelia anserina (tick fever) and Aegyptianella pullorum
  • Diagnosis: -Find adults on bird -Find adults in shed Treatment: -Organophosphate spray
3.1.1.2 Ornithodoros sp. "tampan ticks"

Annotations:

  • Australian and an African species - live in sand - feed on any host species - cause painful bites - transmit Q fever
  • Identification: -ventral mouth parts -body margin rounded and not differentiated from rest of body
3.1.1.3 Otobius megnini "spinose ear tick"

Annotations:

  • - In North America, Africa - Adults free living - larva & nymph live in ear - horses, cattle, dogs RECENTLY FOUNG IN WA
3.1.2 Ixodidae "hard ticks"

Annotations:

  • "hard ticks"  scutum present mouthparts anterior  slow feeders (days)
3.1.2.1 Boophilus

Annotations:

  • Features:  - short palps with ridges  - pale legs  - anal groove behind (posterior),    can be difficult to see  - engorged female has "waist"    (sometimes)
3.1.2.1.1 B. microplus "the cattle tick)

Annotations:

  • - occures in Central & South America, Southeast Asia - introduced into Northern Australia - major cattle disease in Northern Australia  - host specific but occur occasionally on horses, sheep, digs, and pigs
  • Life cycle: - 1 host tick - life cycle takes 22 days - eggs hatch - "seed ticks" climb up grass  - attach to passing cattle  - larvae & nymph remain on host - female ticks drop off after 18-37 days, (most on day 22) - drop off mainly in early morning 
  • Effect on host: - irritation (ticks removed by grooming) - damage to hide (lose 25% value) - anaemia (each tick 1-5ml blood) - anorexia (reduced appetite) - reduced growth rate and milk production Transmit protozoans: Babesia Anaplasma Theileria
  • Tick numbers controlled by temperature and humidity  Tick numbers boom in Autumn  Depends on wet/dry climate
  • Dispersal and Survival  - larvae accumulate around site of egg mass - can migrate short distances (<1m) - can be blown up to 30m - cattle avoid heavily infected areas - can "spell" paddocks to control ticks - in summer 50% live 2 weeks, 10% live 4 weeks - can be up to 11 weeks in cool weather
  • Control: -Spell pastures  -6 dips at 21 days intervals or 4 pour-on treatments at 35 day intervals  -Use Microcytic lactones or OPs. - Vaccine available -> antigen from surface proteins in the ticks gut -> ticks fed on vaccinated cows are exposed to antibody/complemet mediated attack on their epithelium -> these ticks grow poorly and have low fecundity -> 70% effective, need 2 vaccinations 
3.1.2.2 Rhipicephalus

Annotations:

  • Features: anal groove behind anus basis capital projects Forked first coxa (bifid)
3.1.2.2.1 R sanguineus "brown dog tick"

Annotations:

  • Common in tropical countries  -introduced to Australia (common in northern Aust.) -uncommon, but present in melbourne - causes anaemia and irritation - vector of Babesia canis of dogs
3.1.2.3 Ixodes

Annotations:

  • Features: -Long palps and anal groove in front of anus (anterior)
  • Mentiioned species I. holocyclus and I. cornuatus 2 of 22 Australian species (cause paralysis) Many other species overseas: I. rubricundus causes paralysis (Africa) I scapularis vector of lyme disease (Borrelia)
3.1.2.3.1 I. holocylus

Annotations:

  • Life cycle: - 3 host tick - on native animals (commonly Bandicoots) - life cycle takes 18months - larvae & adults in spring  - nymphs mainly in autumn  - males rarely found on host
  • Effect on Host: - all stages cause irritation and paralysis - sheep, dogs, and cats most susceptible: 1 female tick will kill a dog  - Calves & foals also susceptible (4 females to kill a calf) - can affect humans (homophobic tick) - females engorge for up to 21 days - signs develop on days 5-6 - ascending motor paralysis  - intense vasocontriction  - die from paralysis of respiratory muscles  - native & domestic animals can develop immunity 
  • Treatment: - find and remove tick(s) - acaricidal wash - hyperimmune serum
3.1.2.4 Aponomma & Amblyomma

Annotations:

  • MOST SPECIES IN AUSTRALIA OCCUR ON REPTILES  Features: - long mouthparts - anal groove  - often brightly coloured 
3.1.2.5 Haemaphysalis

Annotations:

  • Features: Anal grooves behind anus (posterior)  Lateral projections on palps
3.1.2.5.1 H. longicornis "bush tick"

Annotations:

  • Introduced into Australia  - occurs on cattle and other hosts (horses, dogs etc) - 3 host tick - Occurs in eastern Australia -> common in eastern Victoria  - causes anaemia and hide damage - Vector of Babesia gibbon in dogs
3.2 Mites

Annotations:

  • Sub-class: Acari (contains Ticks and Mites  There are 3 orders called mites - Mesostigmata  - Trombidiformes - Sarcoptiformes 
3.2.1 Sarcoptiformes "Astigmata"
3.2.1.1 Sarcoptidae

Annotations:

  • Rear legs very short Burrow in upper layer of skin
3.2.1.1.1 Sarcoptes

Annotations:

  • Sarcoptes scarbiei sarcoptic mange mite FEATURES: - triangular scales on dorsum - wide host range - strains on specific hosts (eg. var canis) - can survive but not reproduce on other hosts
  • Life cycle: - live in superficial layers of skin - lays eggs in tunnel - larva and 2 nymphal stages - life cycles 10-17 days - mites survive for few days off host - transmission by contact
  • Pathogenesis: - burrowing mites cause irritation - intense pruritus (itching) - hyperkeratosis - alopecia - lesions begin on face, extend over body -2˚ infection, pustules - self inflicted trauma 
  • Diagnosis: Deep skin scrapings - can be difficult to find mites - response to treatment - indicator TREATMENT: - selamectin, topical moxidectin   CONTROL: - use of fipronil, topical moxidectin, selamectin
3.2.1.1.2 Notoedres

Annotations:

  • Notoedrres cati - mainly on cats and rabbits Notodres muris  - on rodents
3.2.1.1.3 Trixacarus

Annotations:

  • Trixacarus caviae Sarcoptid mite of guinea pigs
3.2.1.1.4 Cnemidocoptes

Annotations:

  • Mite of birds Species: C. gallinae = in feathers, depluming mite of poultry C. mutans = on legs of chickens "scaly legs" C. pili = on beak and legs of psittacines
3.2.1.2 Psoroptidae

Annotations:

  • Rear legs project Tissue fluid feeders cause scabs
3.2.1.2.1 Psoreptes

Annotations:

  • Mites of ruminants and horses Ps. ovis = SHEEP SCAB Eradicated from Australia  - live under scabs  - feed on tissue fluids, cause serous exudate - life cycle 9-10 days - high biotic potential - irritation, scabs, hypersensitivity - starts on shoulders and back, spreads over whole body - in laten case can occur in ears, inguinal folds, interdigital spaces - most abundant in cool weather
  • Ps. cuniculi  Ear mite: rabbit, horse, goat -causes ear mange TREATMENT: Avermectins (treat before removing crusts 
3.2.1.2.2 Otodectes

Annotations:

  • Ear mite of cats and dogs Otodectes cynotis - common ear mite of dogs and cats  - also occurs in foxes and rabbits - causes scabs in external ear canal - hosts shake heads and rub eyes - transmitted by contact, often while suckling
  • DIagnosis: with otoscope, unreliable (examine exudate under microscope) TREATMENT: topical moxidectin/imidacloprid and selamectin
3.2.1.2.3 Choroptes

Annotations:

  • Mites of ruminants and horses Chorioptes bovis - caues chorioptic mange  - cattle, sheep, goats, horses, - occurs mainly on legs, belly - commonly seen in housed sheep & cattle - referred to as "barn itch"
3.2.2 Trombidiformes "Prostigmata"

Annotations:

  • Features: - stigma on capitulum - feather-like setae
3.2.2.1 Trombicula

Annotations:

  • Chiggers, Harvest mites - only LARVAE are parasitic - transmit scrub typhus (Rickettsia australis) - T. sarcina causes "black soil itch" in QLD
3.2.2.2 Demodex

Annotations:

  • Demodex canis -> Demodectic Mange FEATUES: -vermiform (worm like) - legs very short at front of body Localisation: - hair follicles (feed on cytoplasm)
  • LIFE CYCLE: eggs, larva, 2 nymphs, adults (all stages in hair follicles) TRANSMISSION: contact during suckling HOST SPECIFIC
  • Demodectic mange - all dogs infected - only some develop disease - short-haired dogs with CMI deficiency  - mainly 6-10 months of age - predilection sites eyes, ears, muzzle - secondary infections with Staph. albus - infection of hair follicles leads to hairloss and hyperkeratosis
  • Disease can be localised or generalised  *evaluate the dogs for underlying disease Diagnosis: Deep skin scraping 
  • TREATMENT: Localised: -may resolve spontaneously - rotenone-based insecticide ointment  Generalised:  - extended, aggressive therapy - benzoyl peroxide shampoo - Amitraz dip (mitaban) - high-dose oral ivermectin, oral milbemycin oxime, topical moxidectin, injectable doramectin
  • Other species of Demodex: Pig = D. phylloides lesions mainly on head Cattle = D. bovis damages hide Cat = alopecia, crusts, scaling on face, neck and eyelids 
3.2.2.3 Psorergates

Annotations:

  • Psorergates ovis = SHEEP ITCH MITE Features: affects sheep in Aust., Africa, N&S america - tiny mite - lives in superficial layers of dermis - life cycle: egg, larva, 3 nymphs, adults (5weeks) Transmission through suckling, shearing Predilection sites: sides, between hip and shoulder - MOST ABUNDANT IN WINTER Effects on host: Hypersensitivity causes irritation, rubbing, "pulled wool". - Not all sheep affected - Spreads SLOWLY in mob TREATMENT: none or amitraz OPs and ivermectin will not eliminate the mites
3.2.2.4 Cheyletiella

Annotations:

  • C. parasitivorax = rabbits C. yasguri = dogs C. blakei = cats Features: claw on palp Effect on host:  - mild mange   - often around head  - "walking dandruff" 
3.2.3 Mesostigmata

Annotations:

  • The gamasid mites -legs at anterior end of body - spiracles (stigma) between coax 3 & 4 - many free-living
  • Other important species: Pneumonyssoides caninum -> nasal mite of the dog Ophionyssus natricis -> snake mite Raillietina auris -> ear mite of cattle Sternostoma tracheacolum -> canary lung mite Varroa destructor -> honey bee mite
3.2.3.1 Dermanyssus gallinae "the red mite"

Annotations:

  • The red mite of poultry FEATURES - triangular anal plate - parasite of birds & mammals  - nocturnal - blood feeders 
  • LIFE CYCLE: eggs, larva, 2 nymphs, adults -eggs laid in crevices - 7 day cycle
  • Effect on host: anaemia, irritation, transmit Borrelia anserina (Spirochaetosis)
3.2.3.2 Ornithonyssus spp. "Fowl mites"

Annotations:

  • FEATURES: - common on wild birds - found in birds nests - referred to as "starling lice" - feed on birds while in nest - some remain on birds all the time - blood feeders - not host specific

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