Explain why there was a fascist March on Rome in 1922.
1 SOCIALLY - The march was purely a dramatic gesture on the Fascist's behalf. Considering the previous
government was inherently weak, having been headed by Salandra; the march was symbolic of the Fascist
strength and was inevitably required in order to present Fascism in such an acute manner. The march was timed to
exploit the weaknesses within the Liberal government, therefore it was a reaction to the weak leadership of
Facta, Prime Minister from February– October 1922, who failed to act against Fascist threats and violence and
Salandra, who took over in October, who was unable to
persuade Mussolini to join his government and so advised his appointment as Prime Minister.
2 POLITICALLY - Politically To incite fear into Mussolini's oppostition and efficiently appear upon the national
and world stage, which had, infact contrasted greatly with the previously weak consitution. the March on Rome
was part of Mussolini’s ‘twin track’ policy to secure power, the threat of violence twinned with negotiations with
the holders of power • the March on Rome was planned as a means of bringing Mussolini into power. The
Fascists won only 7% of the vote in the 1921 elections, Mussolini refused anything less than the Prime
Minister’s post. His radical followers (the Ras) demanded a takeover of local and central government.
Mussolini used the threat of the Ras to reinforce his claims and on 29 October King Victor Emmanuel invited
him to Rome to form a government
3 DESPERATION - the March on Rome was necessary to quell growing unrest within the radical elements of the
Fascist Party who resented Mussolini’s talks with the political Establishment. The Fascist Ras wanted an
immediate seizure of power and revolution. ULTIMATELY designed to secure Mussolini as Prime Minister and
his position as leader of the Fascist Party