Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur

Niamh MacElvogue
Mind Map by Niamh MacElvogue, updated more than 1 year ago
Niamh MacElvogue
Created by Niamh MacElvogue about 6 years ago
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Edexcel iGCSE history

Resource summary

Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur
1 Robert Koch - German Doctor
1.1 More credibility than Pasteur
1.2 Built on theories of Pasteur
1.2.1 Applied them to human diseases
1.2.2 Found a way of staining and growing anthrax germs
1.2.2.1 Petri Dish
1.2.2.2 Proved that they caused disease using mice
1.2.2.2.1 Proved that germs cause disease in humans and animals
1.2.2.3 Won Nobel Prize in 1905
1.2.2.4 Also identified the germs causing TB and cholera
1.2.2.4.1 TB - 1882
1.2.2.4.2 Cholera - 1883
1.2.2.5 More precise than Pasteur
1.2.3 Used new technologies to help him (microscope - received in 1871)
1.3 Born in Germany, 1843
1.4 His success spurred on Louis Pasteur and they developed a rivalry
1.4.1 Inspired new generation of scientists to continue identifying germs and creating vaccines
1.4.2 Rivalry partly due to war that France lost to Germany (1870-1)
1.4.3 Advancements were faster as the governments gave the men money to beat the other country to the discovery
1.4.4 Koch got funding first and his own team
1.4.4.1 French retaliated and gave Pasteur funding to keep up
2 Preventatives greatly improved but not treatments
3 Louis Pasteur - French Chemist
3.1 Born in France, 1822
3.2 Disproved theories of miasma and spontaneous generation
3.2.1 Miasma - Bad air or infectious mist that infected people with disease (carried by wind)
3.2.2 Spontaneous Generation - belief that germs appeared because someone was ill, that being ill was the cause
3.3 Germ Theory
3.3.1 Approached by wine producer (1857)
3.3.1.1 Why is beetroot alcohol going sour?
3.3.1.2 Pasteur concluded that it was germs
3.3.2 Killed bacteria by gently heating liquid
3.3.2.1 Worked with beer and milk
3.3.2.2 Pasteurisation
3.3.3 Convinced germs came from the air
3.3.3.1 Germs can't infect what they can't reach so spontaneous generation was incorrect
3.3.3.1.1 Published Germ Theory in 1861
3.3.3.1.1.1 Only about liquids
3.3.4 French silk industry being ruined by disease
3.3.4.1 Pasteur proved that a germ was causing the disease, pébrine through a series of experiments
3.4 Lacked credibility
3.4.1 No one believed that something as small as a germ could affect something as large as a human
3.4.2 Experiments were limited
3.5 Vaccines
3.5.1 Discovered how they actually work and could be developed for different diseases
3.5.1.1 Began with chicken cholera
3.5.1.1.1 Chicken mistakenly injected with old germs and became resistant
3.5.2 Edward Jenner had discovered about small pox and cow pox
3.5.2.1 Was thought to be a coincidence
3.5.3 Used a vaccine for sheep anthrax to prove to everyone
3.5.4 Created rabies vaccine which was a major breakthrough that people from all over Europe came for
3.5.4.1 Gained credibility
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