BIOLOGY 4.3

charl.mallon
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charl.mallon
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Mind Map on BIOLOGY 4.3, created by charl.mallon on 06/04/2014.
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BIOLOGY 4.3
1 PLANTS NEED MINERALS
1.1 NITRATES
1.1.1 Contain nitrogen for making amino acids
1.1.2 Needed for proteins for cell growth
1.1.3 Without: poor growth & yellow leaves
1.2 PHOSPHATES
1.2.1 Contain phosphorus for making DNA and cell membranes
1.2.2 Needed for respiration and growth
1.2.3 Without: poor root growth & discoloured leaves
1.3 POTASSIUM
1.3.1 Potassium compounds to help enzymes in respiration and photosynthesis
1.3.2 Without: poor flower/fruit growth & discoloured leaves
1.4 MAGNESIUM
1.4.1 Magnesium compounds for photosynthesis
1.4.2 Needed to make chlorophyll
1.4.3 Without: yellow leaves
1.5 ACTIVE TRANSPORT
1.5.1 Root hairs give the plant a big surface area for absorbing minerals
1.5.2 Concentration of minerals in soil is low - higher in root hair cell
1.5.3 Uses energy from respiration to help plant pull minerals into the root hair against the concentration gradient (from low to high conc)
2 DECAY
2.1 Things decay because of microorganisms/decomposers
2.2 The rate of decay depends on:
2.2.1 Temp
2.2.1.1 Hotter = faster - respiration in microorganisms is sped up
2.2.2 Water
2.2.2.1 Moist = fast decay
2.2.3 Oxygen/air
2.2.3.1 More oxygen = faster - microorganisms can respire aerobically
2.3 DETRIVORES
2.3.1 Feed on dead and decaying material
2.3.2 e.g. earthworms, maggots, woodlice
2.3.3 Break material up into small bits
2.3.3.1 This gives a bigger surface area to work on and speeds up decay
2.4 SAPROPHYTES
2.4.1 Feed on decaying material by extracellular digestion
2.4.1.1 i.e. feed by secreting digestive enzymes on to the material outside of their cells
2.4.1.1.1 The enzymes break down the materials into smaller bits which can be absorbed by the saprophyte
2.4.2 Many saprophytes are fungi
2.5 PRESERVING FOOD
2.5.1 Canning
2.5.1.1 Keeps decomposers out
2.5.2 Cooling
2.5.2.1 Slows decomposers' reproduction rate
2.5.3 Freezing
2.5.3.1 Decomposers can't reproduce
2.5.4 Drying
2.5.4.1 Decomposers need water for cell reactions
2.5.5 Pickling
2.5.5.1 Acid kills decomposers
2.5.6 Adding sugar/salt
2.5.6.1 High sugar conc = loss of water by osmosis - decomposers can't work properly
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