Study, draw and label over each diagram G.e.s. of fish G.e.s. of insects The gaseous exchange surface of an earthworm G.e.s. of an amoeba Breathing the mechanism 1. Define the term breathing 2. Outline the sequence of events that occur in the process of breathing 3. Describe the sequence of events when breathing in / inhalation* 4. Outline the path taken by air from outside into the lungs 5. describe the function of the following parts a. larynx b. c shaped cartilage of the trachea c. goblet cells and ciliated epithelial cells of the windpipe 6. This structure forms a seal around the lungs. and secretes fluid that lubricates the surface of the lungs that is in contact with the inner surface of the rib cage---what is the _______________________ 7. Explain the difference between inhaled air and exhaled air. · BREATHING IS A mechanism by which air is brought into and removed from the lungs.· 1: muscles contract and relax2: movement of the rib cage and diaphragm 3: volume changes 4; pressure changes 5: air movement · 1: external intercostal muscles contract Internal intercostals relax Diaphragm contracts 2: rib cage expands up and out Diaphragm drops 3: volume of thoraxic cavity increases4: pressure decreases below external pressure5: air rushes into the lungs and it inflates · nose and nasal cavity Pharynx at the back Larynx / voice box area Trachea / wind pipe Left & right bronchi Branching bronchioles Alveoli / air sacs · 1. It is the voice box that contains the vocal cords. These vibrate creating sound when air is passed through 2. These support the trachea leaving space for is to expand when filled with air 3. These trap air contaminants in mucus and sweep it all up to be swallowed. · pleural membrane and pleural fluid· inhaled air has 1. More oxygen 20% vs. 16% 2. More moisture 3. More contaminants 4. Less carbon dioxide 0.3/0.4% vs. 4% 5. Irregular temperature vs. warm body temperature range Gaseous exchange 1. define a gaseous exchange surface 2. describe some properties that a g.e.s. must have if it depends on slow passive diffusion for movement 3. describe the gaseous exchange surface of a. plants b. Amoeba c. worms 4. describe the gaseous exchange surface of a. insects b. fish c. mammals · a surface adapted for the diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen · 1. it should be thin ensuring a short distance for travel of the gases 2. it should have a large surface area to maximize absorption 3. it should be moist as gases diffuse faster when dissolved in a liquid 4. close to a rapid transport system to move gases to cells quickly and maintain a steep concentration gradient at the surface · 1. stomata pores on the under surface of leaves that allow air to flow into the air spaces of the mesophyll layer 2. The cell surface membrane where gas diffuse across 3. Moist skin as the worm lives in the soil. Surface cells also secrete mucus for easier diffusion · 4. tracheal system starting with outer pores into air channels and chambers throughout the insects body 5. Gill lamellae that is inflated by oxygenated water 6. Alveoli air sacs that are filled with oxygen rich air at inhalation
the uses of anaerobic respiration\ fermentation - the anaerobic process can be directed to produce foods. some of which have become essential today. biotechnology as it is called uses the natural process of anaerobic respiration by various microbes on various substrates to produce different foods as shown in the diagram of the next page.
Single Cell Protein - SCPMicroorganisms can grow on a whole range of cheap or waste materials, and then they are harvested and purified or processed to become food for humans or livestocks.If the foodstuff produced is a protein, the product is called single cell protein (SCP).Many microorganisms are suitable for this process, including algae, yeast, fungi and bacteria.Advantages of using Microorganisms to Produce SCP- Rapid growth rates- Great varieties of substrates can be exploited- Easy manipulation of genetic characteristics- Fairly high protein content- Grow independently of climateExamples of SCP Production1. SpirulinaSpirulina is a blue-green bacterium which has been grown for many years as SCP.It is photosynthetic. It grows in ponds and needs carbon dioxide and inorganic ions only.Dried Spirulina has a high nutrient value and can be fed to animals.