Clinical Pathoanatomy MCQs (Q 151-250)

Ore iyanda
Quiz by Ore iyanda , updated more than 1 year ago
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Quiz on MCQs in Clinical Pathology - 4th year PMU (Q 151-250), created by Ore iyanda on 16/01/2018.
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Question 1

Question
The most frequent form of primary glomerular disease in children is
Answer
  • Minimal change disease
  • Acute glomeruonephritis

Question 2

Question
Hyperfunction of anterior pituitary in pre-pubertal children generally can result in
Answer
  • Acromegaly
  • Gigantism

Question 3

Question
The role of external radiation in the etiology of thyroid cancer is predominant in
Answer
  • Papillary carcinoma
  • Follicular carcinoma

Question 4

Question
The following type of carcinoma of the breast is characterised by 'Indian file' pattern of tumour cells
Answer
  • Infiltrating distal carcinoma
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma

Question 5

Question
Prostatic hyperplasia affects most often
Answer
  • Peripheral prostate
  • Periurethral prostate

Question 6

Question
Which criteria refer to pernicious anaemia
Answer
  • Low serum B12
  • Megaloblastic anaemia
  • Antibody against internal factor of Castle
  • Gastric parietal cell antibody

Question 7

Question
Which of the following tumours have association with occupational exposure to asbestosis?
Answer
  • Silicosis
  • Malignant mesothelioma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Laryngeal carcinoma

Question 8

Question
Which of the following features characterise ulcerative colitis, except
Answer
  • Formation of crypt abscess and cryptitis
  • Superficial mucosal ulceration
  • Depletion of goblet cells and mucus
  • Stricture formation in chronic cases

Question 9

Question
Philadelphia chromosome is characterised by
Answer
  • Translocation (8;14)
  • Translocation (9;22)
  • Translocation (22;9)
  • Translocation (14;8)

Question 10

Question
Which of the following are included in classic Hodgkin's disease
Answer
  • Histiocytic fibrosis
  • Lymphocytic depletion
  • Mixed cellularity
  • Nodular sclerosis

Question 11

Question
Pulseless disease is
Answer
  • Temporal arteritis
  • Kawasaki's disease
  • Takayasu arteritis
  • Buerger's disease

Question 12

Question
The morphological variants of diagnostic cells in Hodgkin's disease are
Answer
  • Cells with bilobed nucleus appearing as mirror image
  • Megaloblastic cells
  • Lacunar type cell
  • Large cleaved cells

Question 13

Question
Crohn's disease is characterised by the following histopathologic features
Answer
  • Non-caseating sarcoid like granulomas
  • Deep transmural ulceration
  • Multiple abscesses
  • Pseudopolyps

Question 14

Question
According to monoclonal atherosclerosis hypothesis, the primary event in atherosclerosis is
Answer
  • Monoclonal proliferation of endothelial cells
  • Monoclonal proliferation of smooth muscle cells
  • Monoclonal proliferation of monocytes
  • Monoclonal proliferation of foam cells

Question 15

Question
Barrett's oesophagus is
Answer
  • Congenital anomaly
  • Inflammatory disease
  • Metaplastic process
  • Neoplastic lesion

Question 16

Question
The most common site of involvement of atherosclerosis aneurysm is
Answer
  • Arch of aorta
  • Thoracic aorta
  • Suprarenal part of abdominal aorta
  • Infrarenal part of abdominal aorta

Question 17

Question
The following histologic types of bronchogenic carcinoma have strong association with cigarette smoking except
Answer
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Large cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma

Question 18

Question
The most important and common complicated atheromatous lesion in the coronary artery in acute myocardial infarction is
Answer
  • Calcification
  • Coronary artery thrombosis
  • Aneurysm
  • Ulceration

Question 19

Question
In hypertensive heart disease left ventricular hypertrophy is correlated with
Answer
  • Duration of hypertension
  • Severity of hypertension
  • Cause of hypertension
  • Severity of coronary atherosclerosis

Question 20

Question
The most common causative agent for lobar pneumonia is
Answer
  • Staphylococci
  • Streptococci
  • Pneumococci
  • Haemophilus

Question 21

Question
The common complications of gastric ulcer are
Answer
  • Penetration
  • Pneumonia
  • Haemorrhage
  • Perforation

Question 22

Question
What complication can occur due to atherosclerosis of femoral artery?
Answer
  • Thrombophlebitis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Gangrene
  • Pulmonary thromboembolism

Question 23

Question
Which of the following types of acute viral hepatitis become chronic hepatitis?
Answer
  • Type A
  • Type B
  • Type C
  • All the three answers are correct

Question 24

Question
Nephrotic syndrome develops in
Answer
  • Urine retention
  • Acute renal failure
  • Acute pyelonephritis
  • Glomerulonephritis

Question 25

Question
The infection which leads to pyelonephritis may be a result of
Answer
  • Hematogenous dissemination
  • Ascending dissemination
  • Immune conflict
  • As a complication of glomerulonephritis

Question 26

Question
Which of the following diseases does not lead to nephrosclerosis?
Answer
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Gout

Question 27

Question
Squamous cell carcinoma is a common tumour in the
Answer
  • Uterine body
  • Ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes
  • Uterine cervix

Question 28

Question
Which of the morphological methods are used for subtyping lymphomas?
Answer
  • Van Gieson staining
  • PAS
  • Von Kossa staining
  • Immunohistochemistry

Question 29

Question
Which of the following complications can develop in pulmonary carcinoma?
Answer
  • Mantle pneumonia
  • Brown induration of lungs
  • Empyema
  • Massive haemorrhage

Question 30

Question
Determine the pathological process in the lung emphysema, having in mind the microscopic appearance - a focus of necrosis, detritus, leukocytes and macrophages
Answer
  • Acute pulmonary abscess
  • Chronic pulmonary abscess
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Lung cancer in decay

Question 31

Question
What disease is endometriosis?
Answer
  • Inflammation of the uterine mucosa
  • Inflammation of the uterine cervix
  • Dishormonal disease
  • Tumour

Question 32

Question
Point out the characteristic macroscopic changes of chronic obstructive emphysema
Answer
  • Decreased in size lungs, collapsed to the hilum
  • Lungs with increased volume
  • Thick consistency of the lungs
  • Reduced elasticity and soft consistency

Question 33

Question
Gynecomastia is a disease of
Answer
  • Breast in women
  • Ovaries
  • Male breast
  • Testes

Question 34

Question
What is typical for the first stage of syphilis?
Answer
  • Siphilides
  • Ulcus durum
  • Gumma
  • Generalised lymphadenitis

Question 35

Question
For tuberculous meningitis the following histological changes are typical
Answer
  • Purulent infiltration in the meninges
  • Endarteriitis obliterans
  • Granulomatous inflammation
  • Caseous necrosis

Question 36

Question
Why are occupational diseases named pneumoconiosis?
Answer
  • Cor hypertonicum
  • Disease of the lungs associated with mineral dust inhalation
  • Pneumonia
  • Infection of the bronchial wall and lung parenchyma

Question 37

Question
Which of the following factors play a role in the development of bronchial carcinoma?
Answer
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Smoking
  • Influenza
  • Work/environmental factors

Question 38

Question
What is the exudate in the pleural cavity and pericardial sac due to lymphatic spread of pulmonary carcinoma into them?
Answer
  • Fibrinous
  • Serious
  • Haemorrhagic
  • Purulent

Question 39

Question
What forms of silicosis do you know?
Answer
  • Nodular
  • Diffuse-sclerotic
  • Senile
  • Combination of a and b (Nodular & Diffuse-sclerotic)

Question 40

Question
Apically located peripheral pulmonary carcinoma is represented by the eponym
Answer
  • Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome
  • Pancoast-Tobias
  • Ptosis and miosis
  • Enophthalmus

Question 41

Question
Which diseases complicate silicosis?
Answer
  • Cor hypertonicum
  • Cor pulmonale chronicum
  • Tuberculosis
  • Pneumofibrosis

Question 42

Question
Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome includes the following
Answer
  • Ptosis, midriasis, anhydrosis
  • Ptosis, miosis, increased sweating
  • Ptosis, miosis, pseudoenophthalmus
  • Anhydrosis

Question 43

Question
What possible gross changes do we see in lung carcinoma?
Answer
  • Pneumonia-like form
  • ill-defined central node connected to a bronchus
  • Linitis plastic
  • Peripheral ill-defined node

Question 44

Question
Chronic bronchitis is usually accompanied by
Answer
  • Squamous cell metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium
  • Phases of purulent inflammation
  • Productive cough for at least 2 months/year for 3 consecutive years
  • Productive cough for at least 3 months/year for 2 consecutive years

Question 45

Question
Squamous cell lung carcinoma occurs
Answer
  • In the middle lobe of the left lung
  • After squamous cell metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium of bronchi
  • As an ill-defined node connected to a bronchus
  • Forming nests of Tumour cells producing keratin

Question 46

Question
In small cell lung carcinoma we can observe
Answer
  • Numerous Tumour cells with scant stroma
  • The tumour cells resemble oat-grains
  • It grows in a pneumonia-like fashion
  • The tumour cells have very high proliferative rate

Question 47

Question
Bronchio-alveolar pulmonary carcinoma is characterised by
Answer
  • Forms papillary folds into the alveolar lumen
  • It is a form of squamous cell carcinoma
  • The cells produce keratin
  • It is a form of adenocarcinoma

Question 48

Question
Hodgkin lymphoma has
Answer
  • Five histological variants
  • Hodgkin cells
  • Reed-Sternberg cells
  • Polyclonal inflammatory background

Question 49

Question
In Hodgkin lymphoma we can observe
Answer
  • Effaced lymph node structure
  • Nodular sclerosis histological form
  • Mixed cellularity histological form
  • Chronic myeloleukemia

Question 50

Question
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be
Answer
  • Nodal
  • B-cell and T-cell types
  • Extranodal
  • None of the above

Question 51

Question
In chronic lympholeukemia in the liver can be seen
Answer
  • Myeloblasts
  • Mature lymphocytes and single lymphoblasts
  • Focal leukemic infiltrates in the portal spaces
  • Leukemic infiltrates in the sinusoids

Question 52

Question
Chronic myeloleukemia causes the following changes in liver
Answer
  • Effaced lobular structure
  • Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of hepatocytes
  • Atrophy of hepatocytes
  • Leukaemic infiltrates in the sinusoids

Question 53

Question
In chronic myeloleukemia we observe the following
Answer
  • Long remissions even without treatment
  • Extreme hepato-splenomegaly
  • Anemia, hemorrhages, infections
  • Splenic infarctions

Question 54

Question
Which are the clinical phases of chronic myeloleukemia?
Answer
  • Chronic stable phase
  • Accelerated phase
  • Blast crisis
  • None of the above

Question 55

Question
In Hodgkin lymphoma, mixed cellularity type
Answer
  • There can be seen numerous eosinophils
  • We can observe area with necrosis
  • Intact histological lymph nose structure
  • Giant bi-uncleared cells, called 'mirror image'

Question 56

Question
Plasmocytoma has the following features
Answer
  • Reed-Sternberg Tumour cells
  • Jelly-like raspberry red osteolytic bone lesion
  • The tumour cells have a large vacuolar nucleus with prominent nucleolus
  • The tumour cells have a round eccentric nucleus with a pale halo around it

Question 57

Question
Which of the following are examples of pathological processes in the oral cavity that can have an effect of internal organs?
Answer
  • Scarlet fever
  • Peritonsilar abscess
  • Epilus
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma

Question 58

Question
Which avitaminoses can be associated with changes in the oral cavity?
Answer
  • Vit. B6
  • Vit. B12
  • Vit. D
  • None of the above

Question 59

Question
Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause the following changes in the oral cavity
Answer
  • Glossomegaly
  • Hunter's tongue (atrophic gastritis)
  • Geographic tongue
  • Fibrinous gingivitis

Question 60

Question
What type of examination will you suggest to your patient if you diagnose him/her with atrophic glossitis (Hunter's tongue)?
Answer
  • Colonoscopy
  • Dermatoscopy
  • Gastroscopy
  • Hysteroscopy

Question 61

Question
If a patient with atrophic glossitis is examined with gastroscopy, what can be the findings in gastric mucosa?
Answer
  • Menetrier's disease
  • Atrophic autoimmune gastritis
  • Acute fibrinous gastritis
  • None of the above

Question 62

Question
The risk of which disease does atrophic autoimmune gastritis carry?
Answer
  • Acute gastritis
  • Atrophy of the colonic mucosa
  • Rectal cancer
  • Gastric cancer

Question 63

Question
What are the usual changes in leukoplakia?
Answer
  • The epithelium is hyperkeratotic
  • Acanthosis in the epithelium
  • Chronic inflammation
  • Dysplasia in the epithelium can be observed

Question 64

Question
What can we observe in leukoplakia?
Answer
  • Parakeratosis
  • Dysplasia
  • Carcinoma in situ
  • Diabetes

Question 65

Question
Which of the following is true of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland
Answer
  • It is a benign tumour
  • It contains hyperplastic fatty tissue
  • It is firm and Lobulated
  • It is painful and inflamed

Question 66

Question
In chronic tonsillitis we can observe the following
Answer
  • Purulent exudate
  • Hypertrophic tonsillitis
  • Atrophic tonsillitis
  • It is a predisposing factor for the formation of epilus

Question 67

Question
The typical histological picture of epilus includes
Answer
  • Langhans giant multinuclear cells
  • Fresh haemorrhages and hemosiderin
  • Osteoclast-type multinuclear giant cells
  • It is a true tumour

Question 68

Question
Adamantinoma (amelloblastoma) is
Answer
  • A true tumour
  • An odontogenic tumour
  • When compressed the sound is described as flapping wings
  • When it is compressed the sound is described as eggshell cracking

Question 69

Question
Why is it necessary to comment on the presence or absence of H.pylori in gastric biopsies?
Answer
  • H.pylori is a risk factor for MALT lymphoma
  • H.pylori is a risk factor for duodenal cancer
  • H.pylori causes chronic gastritis
  • H.pylori is a severe fungal infection

Question 70

Question
Which of the following are possible complications of chronic gastric ulcer?
Answer
  • Penetration in the diaphragm
  • Perforation
  • Pyloric stenosis
  • Massive haemorrhage

Question 71

Question
Which special stain help us determine the presence of H.pylori in gastric biopsies?
Answer
  • Van Gieson
  • Giemsa
  • Congo Red
  • Immunohistochemistry

Question 72

Question
The following changes can be observed in acute duodenal ulcer
Answer
  • Fibrinoid necrosis at the ulcer base
  • Inflammatory infiltrate with lymphocytes and plasma cells
  • Ulceration penetrating through muscularis mucosae, reaching muscularis propria
  • It often undergoes malignant transformation

Question 73

Question
What histological types of gastric cancer do you recognise?
Answer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Signet-ring cell carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Mucinous adenocarcinoma

Question 74

Question
In phlegmonous appendicitis we can observe the following
Answer
  • Peri-appendicitis
  • Lymphocyte infiltration in the mucosa
  • Neutrophilic infiltration throughout the thickness of the wall of the appendix
  • Constriction of the blood vessels of the serosa

Question 75

Question
Phlegmonous appendicitis is characterised by
Answer
  • Purulent exudate in the lumen
  • Hypoplasia of the lymph follicles
  • Hyperplastic activated lymph follicles
  • Hyperemic blood vessels of the serosa

Question 76

Question
Gangrenous appendicitis is characterised by
Answer
  • Lymphocytic infiltration of the mucosa
  • Thrombosis of blood vessels
  • Necrosis of the wall of the appendix
  • Severe inflammation through the wall of the appendix

Question 77

Question
What are the causes which may lead to micro-nodular liver cirrhosis?
Answer
  • Acute viral hepatitis
  • Chronic viral hepatitis
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Chronic alcoholism

Question 78

Question
Which of the types of necrosis are found in chronic active hepatitis?
Answer
  • Piece-meal necrosis
  • Adjacent necrosis
  • Bridging necrosis
  • Caseous necrosis

Question 79

Question
Why does the level of calcium in the blood has prognostic value in acute pancreatitis?
Answer
  • Calcium is deposited in the bones
  • Calcium levels in the blood slower with the progression of steato-necrosis
  • Calcium reacts with fatty acids to form soaps
  • It has no prognostic value

Question 80

Question
Some of the gross features of acute pancreatitis are
Answer
  • Enlarged liver
  • Steatonecrosis of the fatty tissue around and inside the pancreas
  • Haemorrhages in the tissues of the pancreas
  • Fibrosis in the tissues of the pancreas

Question 81

Question
What histological changes can be observed in chronic hepatitis?
Answer
  • Chronic cholecystitis
  • Inflammatory infiltrates
  • Massive necrosis of hepatocytes
  • Fibrotic septa

Question 82

Question
Chronic cholecystitis is characterised by the following
Answer
  • Often it is accompanied by cholelithiasis
  • It has no association with cholelithiasis
  • Can cause adhesions
  • It is caused by viral infection

Question 83

Question
Which is the following can be complications caused by chronic cholecystitis?
Answer
  • Peritonitis
  • Obstruction of d.choledochus
  • Cholestasis
  • Pancreatitis

Question 84

Question
After consuming poisonous mushrooms, a patient shows signs of acute liver failure with progressive reduction of the size of the liver. What process has developed in the liver?
Answer
  • Acute viral hepatitis
  • Massive hepatic necrosis
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • None of the above

Question 85

Question
After consuming poisonous mushrooms, a patient shows signs of acute liver failure with progressive reduction of the size of the liver. Besides liver failure, what other complication can worsen the patient's clinical condition?
Answer
  • Left sided heart failure
  • Right sided heart failure
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Acute renal failure

Question 86

Question
Which of the following can occur after a streptococcal tonsillitis?
Answer
  • Post-infectious cholecystitis
  • Post-infectious glomerulonephritis
  • Minimal change disease of the kidneys
  • Acute rheumatism

Question 87

Question
Which types of glomerulonephritis are clinically presented by nephritic syndrome?
Answer
  • Diffuse endocapillary glomerulonephritis
  • Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis
  • Minimal change disease
  • Membranous glomerulonephritis

Question 88

Question
Which types of glomerulonephritis are clinically presented by nephrotic syndrome?
Answer
  • Diffuse endocapillary glomerulonephritis
  • Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis
  • Minimal change disease
  • Membranous glomerulonephritis

Question 89

Question
What findings can be observed in glomerulonephritis?
Answer
  • Klebsiella
  • E.coli
  • Streptococcus
  • The urine is sterile

Question 90

Question
Which type of glomerulonephritis is 'crescentic'?
Answer
  • Minimal change disease
  • Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis
  • Membranous glomerulonephritis
  • Diffuse endocapillary glomerulonephritis

Question 91

Question
'Big white kidney' can be observed in the following cades
Answer
  • Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis
  • Amyloidosis of the kidney
  • Minimal change disease
  • Nephrosclerotic glomerulonephritis

Question 92

Question
Which of the following histological changes are associated with tubal pregnancy?
Answer
  • Chorionic Villi and decidual Changes of the endometrium
  • Monstrous trophoblast, hydropic chorionic villi
  • Hematoma in Fallopian tube, chorionic villi invading the muscular layer of the tube, decidual changes of the endometrium
  • Cervical intraepithelial lesion, third grade

Question 93

Question
Which of the following histological changes are associated with mola hydatidosa?
Answer
  • Chorionic Villi and decidual Changes of the endometrium
  • Monstrous trophoblast, hydropic chorionic villi without feral blood capillaries
  • Hematoma in Fallopian tube, chorionic villi invading the muscular layer of the tube, decidual changes of the endometrium
  • Cervical intraepithelial lesion, third grade

Question 94

Question
Which of the following histological changes are associated with abortion (miscarriage) ?
Answer
  • Chorionic Villi and decidual Changes of the endometrium
  • Monstrous trophoblast, hydropic chorionic villi without feral blood capillaries
  • Hematoma in Fallopian tube, chorionic villi invading the muscular layer of the tube, decidual changes of the endometrium
  • Cervical intraepithelial lesion, third grade

Question 95

Question
Specify the associated clinical symptoms in dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix
Answer
  • No clinical symptoms
  • Scarce contact bleeding
  • Fever
  • Enlarged inguinal lymph nodes

Question 96

Question
Why if curettage from a suspected pregnancy shows only decidual changes, the gynaecologist should be notified immediately?
Answer
  • There is an increased risk for endometrial carcinoma
  • There is an increased risk of associated mola hydatidosa
  • There is an increased risk of associated intraepithelial lesion of the cervix
  • There is a high risk of associated tubal pregnancy

Question 97

Question
Mola hydatidosa has the following characteristics
Answer
  • Grossly it resembles grape-like structures
  • Chorionic villi have fetal capillaries
  • Chorionic villi are with hydropic edema
  • Chorionic villi lack fetal blood vessels

Question 98

Question
Examples of ovarian cysts are
Answer
  • Follicular cyst
  • Cystadenoma papilliferum
  • Mature teratoma (dermoid cyst)
  • Colloid cyst

Question 99

Question
Which hormones play a role in breast diseases?
Answer
  • Somatropin
  • Oxytocin
  • Estrogen
  • Progesterone

Question 100

Question
How does the breast cancer metastasise?
Answer
  • Primarily via lymphogenic spread
  • Distantly via hematogenous spread
  • Fibro-epithelial spread
  • Apocrine spread
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