Flashcards by , created almost 6 years ago


Created by Nelle almost 6 years ago
patho. jars.. formative
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Pathology of Alimentary Tract 2 (Ruminant Forestomachs/ Glandular stomach)
Question Answer
HOMEOSTASIS WITHIN THE CELL Generic programming of metabolism, differentiation & specialisation. Effects & interactions with neighbouring cells. Availability of metabolic nutrients
STAGES OF IMPAIRMENT OF CELLS FUNCTION ADAPTATION - Examples of adaptive responses are hyperplasia, hypertrophy & atrophy. REVERSIBLE INJURY - Cell injury is reversible up to a certain point. CELL DEATH - When a cell exceeds its limit in reversible injury it then suffers irreversible injury and ultimately cell death.
CAUSES OF CELL DEATH Ischemia - lack of blood flow Infections Toxins - alcohol, lead, mercury Hypoxia - lack of oxygen Nutrient Deprivation Odema
APOPTOSIS & NECROSIS APOPTOSIS Designed to eliminate unwanted cells through activation of internal suicide program. NECROSIS Occurs after abnormal stresses cause irreversible damage to the cell and it is always pathalogic.
HYPERTROPHY & HYPERPLASIA HYPERTROPHY Increase in the SIZE of the individual cell - resulting in an increase in the size of the organ. HYPERPLASIA Increase in the NUMBER of cells - usually resulting in increased volume of the organ or tissue.
METAPLASIA Is irreversible cell changes from one type to another in response to external stressors to better adapt to its environment. EG: Goblet cells in Gourd
DYSPLASIA & NEOPLASIA DYSPLASIA Abnormality of cell development which is often reversible. NEOPLASIA Uncontrolled progression of the formation and growth of cells/neoplasms (tumors)
SUBCELLULAR ALTERATION Changes within the cell.... AUTOPHAGY refers to lyosomal digestion of the cells own components and is initiated by nutrient deprivation.
HYPERPLASIA - HORMONAL STIMULUS & HYPERPLASIA - COMPENSATORY Hormonal stimulus - causes increase in cell numbers during times like puberty (female breast) and pregnancy. Compensatory - occurs when a portion of the tissue is diseased or removed.
ATROPHY Shrinkage in the size of the cell by the loss of cell substance is known as atrophy. Caused by decreased workload, ischemia, poor nutrition, aging, loss of endocrine stimulation, pressure due to growing tumors or swelling