Geography GCSE unit 1a-the restless earth

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Question Answer
what is at the centre of the earth? a ball of solid iron and nickel called the core
what is the mantle made from? how does it move? it is made from semi-molten rock which moves very slowly
what is the outer layer of the earth called? crust
is the crust thick or thin? it's very thin, about 20km
what is the crust divided into? tectonic plates
what are the two types of plates that the crust is made from? 1. continental crust 2. oceanic crust
describe the continental crust thicker less dense
describe the oceanic crust thinner more dense
what is the order of the earths structure from the middle to the outside 1. inner core 2. outer core 3. mantle 4. crust
why do the earths plates move? because the rock underneath them in the mantle is moving
what are the places where the plates meet called? plate margins
what are the 3 types of plate margins? 1. destructive margins 2. constructive margins 3. conservative margins
what is a destructive plate margin? where two plates move towards each other
what is a constructive plate margin? where two plates are moving away from each other
what is a conservative plate margin? where two plates slide past each other or move in the same direction but at different speeds
describe how a destructive plate margin works 1. the oceanic plate meets the contential plate, the denser oceanic plate is forced down into the mantel where it is destroyed. this then often causes volcanoes and ocean trenches. 2. two contential plates meet, the plates smash against each other, but no crust is destroyed
describe what happens at a constructive plate margin two plates move away from each other, this causes magma to rise from the mantle to fill the gap. this then cools and creates the new crust
describe what happens at a conservative plate margin plates slide past each other in the same direction but at different speeds or past each other in opposite directions. This doesn't create crust or destroy it
where are fold mountains formed? destructive plate margins
how do fold mountains form? when two tectonic plates collide the sedimentary rock that has built up between them is folded and forced upwards to form a fold mountain
what are fold mountain areas like? they have lots of high mountains, which are very rocky with steep slopes. There is often snow and glaciers in the highest bits and lakes in the valleys between the mountains
what do humans use fold mountains for? 1. farming 2. hydro-electric power (HEP) 3. mining 4. forestry 5. tourism
what is the case study for fold mountains? The Alps
where is the Alps? Central Europe
what countries do The Alps stretch across? austria germany france italy liechtenstein slovenia switzerland
what do people use The Alps for? farming hydro-electric power (HEP) tourism mining forestry
how is farming done on the alps? 1. The steep upland areas are used to farm goats, which provide milk, cheese and meat 2. Some sunnier slopes have been terraced to plant vineyards
how is hydro-electric power (HEP) used on The Alps? 1. The narrow valleys are dammed to generate HEP 2. The electricty is then used in local homes and businesses. It's also exported to towns and cities further away
how is mining useful in The Alps? people have found salt, iron ore, gold, silver, and copper in the Alps, but the mining has declined dramatically due to cheaper forgein sources
how is forestry used in The Alps? Scots Pine is planted all over the Alps because it is more resilient to the munching goats, which kill native tree saplings. The trees can then be logged and sold to make things like furniture.
how many tourists visit the alps each year? 100 million, this makes it a big part of the economy
what do tourists use the alps for? winter sports like snowboarding and ice climbing summer sports like mountain biking and walking
what has been built in The Alps to cope with the number of tourists? new villages ski lifts cable cars holiday chalets restaurants
where are volcanoies found? destructive and constructive plate margins
what are the 3 different types of volcano? 1. Composite volcano 2. Shield volcano 3. Dome volcano
what are the characteristics of a composite volcano? made up of ash and lava that's erupted, cooled and hardened into layers. the lava is usually thick and flows slowly. It hardens quickly to form a steep-sided volcano.
what are the characteristics of a shield volcano? made up of only lava. the lava is runny. it flows quickly and spreads over a wide area, forming a low, flat volcano.
what are the characteristics of a dome volcano? made up of only lava. the lava is thick. it flows slowly and hardens quickly, forming a steep-sided volcano.
what is the volcano case study? mount st helens
what is a convection current? the inner core of the earth is so warm it is filled with radio active decay of iron and nickel. this causes the magma to rise towards the earths surface. when it reaches the top it gets dragged sideways causing the earths surface to slowly change. once it has been dragged sideways it cools down causeing the magma to sink back down towards the inner core.
what sort of pattern are earthquakes and volcanoes formed on? a linear pattern
what are three social responses to the mount st helen eruption 1.money was given to rebuild houses after 200 homes were destroyed 2. compensation was given to farmers because what they producd on their farms was destroyed by being covered in ash-$70 million 3.new tourists facilities were being built to gain back tourists they had lost-plays a big part in the ecomony
what are three economic responses to the mount st helen eruption 1. money was given to redevelop the salmon hatcheries after 12 million baby salmon were killed 2. a new highway was built and major repairs were undertaken because 250km of roads and 25km of railways were damaged costing $7million 3. millions of trees were replanted because there was a huge loss of timber which would cost $330 milion
what are three enviromental responses to the mount st helen eruption 1. Drains has to be cleared to prevent flooding 2. a million tonnes of ash were removed from roads buildings and airports. it took ten weejs to remove ash from the toen yakima costing $1 million 3. a channel was dredged to remove logs and levees were rebuilt to reduce floods which could happen in the future
where is mount st helens mount st helens is found on the nouthern hemisphere, in the north west coast of america, in wasshington state. to the bottom of mount st helens, spirit lake is found
why are the alps ideal for generating electricity? because of the deep narrow v-shape valleys
how many people were killed due to the mount st helens eruption? 63 people
what did the landslide due to the mount st helens eruption cause it caused volcanic deposit to spread which were 150 metres deep
when did mount st helens erupt? 1980
what is a supevaolcano? a massive volcano
what is the supervolcano case study? yellow stone national park in the usa
what part of americal is yellow stone national park? north america
what plate boundary is yellow stone natinal park on? a hotspot
how much area was affected due to the yellow stone eruption? 2500 km2
what effects would be caused if yellow stone volcano was to erupt? 1. a 12 degree temerature drop causing a volcanic winter or even the next ice age 2. 87,000 deaths due to suffication from the ash 3. 2/5 of the worlds population would starve due to monsoon rains falling because of the drop in temperature
what two scales can measure earthquakes? 1. richter scale 2. mercalli scale
what does a richter scale measure? 1. it measures the magnitude on a scale of 1-9+ 2. the magnitude is measured by a seismometre, with an arm that moves with the vibration of the earth
what is magnitude? the energy released by an earthquake
what does an mercalli scale measure? 1. this measures the effect of an earthquake on a scale of 1-12 2. effects are measured by eye witnesses, this can be through words or photos
what is the earth quake case study in rich and poor parts of the world? rich part of the world-L'Aquila, Italy poor part of the world-Kashmir, Pakistan
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