Free at last

shona.doyle10
Flashcards by shona.doyle10, updated more than 1 year ago
shona.doyle10
Created by shona.doyle10 about 7 years ago
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History (Free at Last) Flashcards on Free at last, created by shona.doyle10 on 04/09/2014.

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Question Answer
What made it difficult for immigrants to get through Ellis Island? They were inspected, asked security questions, and literacy tests were used.
Why did Americans become reluctant to accept new immigrants? They feared the red scare, they believed immigrants would take jobs, that they were inferior, they would start a revolution, they would commit serious crimes and they would make it hard to find housing.
What difficulties did black americans face when they moved north? Seen as uneducated, unskilled, they were paid less, the KKK made racist attacks, there was white anger and racism, tension built, Tulsa riot resulted in 3000 black americans livelihoods wiped out.
What were the Jim Crow laws and give 3 examples. The Jim Crow laws created a segregated society, 'separate but equal' in 1896. 1.Marriages between white and black prohibited. 2. Separate schools for whites ad coloured children. 3. Separate toilet facilities.
Briefly describe the Scottsboro Boys case. 9 men on train accused of raping 2 white girls. An all white jury found the boys guilty and 8/9 were sentenced to death. However a world wide petition was formed in support of the boys. Another trail was held and after 7 years the charges were dropped against 5, 4 were convicted and 3 later paroled, the other escaped.
Briefly described the KKK. Racist organisation which intimidated people by dressing like ghosts. They burned crosses on hillsides to scare victims. They used terror against blacks and catholics. They believed true americans were white and superior. The believed the protestant religion must be supreme and thought the catholic church was un-american.
Why was there growing demand for civil rights after WW2? The case of Emmet Till shocked people, people were fighting against discrimination in the war but still face it at home, intimidations such as the KKK and lynchings, continuation of prejudice such as the jim crow laws, early civil rights organisations, new pride in black culture.
Briefly describe Brown Vs the Topeka Board of Education. Brown believe that his daughter shouldn't have to go to an all black school which was further away than the nearest white school. The argument was taken to the Supreme court and they said schools should be desegregated, but this was mostly ignored in south america.
Briefly describe the little rock 9. The central High School in Little Rock decided to accept 9 black students but the government of the state opposed and sent state soldiers to surround the school along with an angry white mob. The president didn't accept this and ordered the state soldiers to be removed as well as sending in 1000 US soldiers to protect the children. They stayed for a year to keep them safe.
What were sit-ins? 4 students went into a white-only diner but their order was refused and so they refused to move. The next day 80 more people came with them. Sit ins spread across the south and 70 000 thousand protesters became involved.
What were the successes and limits on the sit-ins? Successes= 1. showed students they could take action themselves and make a difference. 2. many restaurants and cafes had to desegregate. 3. Showed people their actions made a step towards civil rights. Limits= 1. limited success in some towns/cities. 2. many had drinks and food thrown at them. 3. much more needed to be done to recognise civil rights across america.
Describe the freedom rides. Black students aimed to gain publicity for CORE by travelling through states by bus and trying to use segregated facilities. The KKK burned buses and attacked students, and 8 white men got on at Birmingham and brutally attacked them. Publicity meant that segregation was ended at interstate bus stations.
What were the positive and negative consequences of Birmingham 1963? Positive= 1.across america it showed that the public wanted change. 2. Public sympathy was high so Kennedy ordered an end to segregation in Birmingham. 3. Federal government was prepared to force state government to obey laws. 3. The shocking media was sent across the world. Negative = 1. Costly in human life and lost support for MLK. 2. Volunteers from the North were beaten by police and KKK. 3. 3 students from the north were murdered. 4. Many wondered if the struggle was worth the cost and if non-violence worked. 5. Many local black americans had to deal with the anger of white americans.
Describe the march on washington. Wanted to gain publicity for civil rights. 250 000 men, women and children attended the march and the publicity caused meant it was shown live on 4 national TV shows. MLK made the 'i have a dream' speech.
Describe the 16th street bombing. 15 sticks of dynamite were thrown into a church's basement. 4 children killed and 20 seriously injured. The bomber was a KKK member and he watched the scene as firemen and policemen arrived.
What did MLK's method involve? he believed in peaceful protest even when attitudes change. Many thought that violence would ensure federal protection, but MLK believed it would lose sympathy for the cause. He believed racism in politics was what had to change.
What did the civil rights act 1964 do? banned discrimination on the basis of race in public places. It provided equal opportunities at work. It allowed the justice department to take state governments to court if they continued to discriminate against blacks.
Describe what happened in Selma. 600 marchers were met by 200 state troopers and they refused to turn back so were attacked with tear gas, wee beaten, whipped and trampled by horses. It gained huge publicity and made the public very angry.
What did the 1965 voting rights act do? It allowed black americans to vote as equals to Whites. The act meant no more literacy tests or checks on poll tax payments which made it easier for blacks to vote.
What was the Nation of Islam? Black muslims were members and considered whites to be devils, they supported the segregation of blacks and whites. The 3 main ideas of Elijah Muhammed were that blacks should have pride in their Muslim identity, they should create a separate nation in the USA and they should run their own businesses and facilities.
Who was Malcolm X and what did he believe? Malcolm X's father was murdered by the kkk and he dropped out of school and became a criminal. In prison he heard about the Nation of Islam. He didn't agree with MLK and believed the non-violence just accepted white actions.
Who supported Malcolm X and why? People who were tired of waiting on white authority to improve their civil rights.
What changed Malcolm X's opinions? When he travelled to Mecca he saw that Whites could be kind to blacks too.
What were the 3 aims of the black power movement? 1. Blacks shouldn't wait for civil rights from whites and they should create their own communities. 2. blacks should use violence to defend themselves. 3. To allow them to take pride in their identity and culture first and american second.
Who was Stokely Carmichael and what did he believe? Member of the SNCC as he disagreed with the tactics and leadership of the SCLC and MLK. He wanted a more aggressive approach to segregation. He thought the movement shouldn't involve white americans and wanted them expelled from the SNCC.
What did Carmichael do in Alabama in 1965? He tried to persuade blacks to register for the vote. He wanted to show them that they could become involved in the politics and change the area they live in.
What did the Black Panther Party want? They wanted local black control of services such as education and police. They supported guns for self defence and retaliation against people.
Give 3 community programmes the black panthers organised Free breakfast for children, free health clinics, local school support groups.
What part did the black panthers play in the movement? It gave black Americans their identity, but only a small number used violence. Black Americans realised riots didn't achieve anything. Soon the black panthers became non existent
What was MLK's main concern about the campaign moving earth? Many people in he south thought that verging was achieved in the south by the laws. But he knew big problems still existed.
Why was Watt's important? It showed the lack of support for MLK. When he went to LA he was shouted and heckled.
What was the reason for riots in the north? Rise of black power movements, feeling rejected by the civil rights movement, hot summers took young blacks on the streets, white police patrolling the area and harassing black youngsters.
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