GCSE PE

Tapi Mandz
Mind Map by Tapi Mandz, updated more than 1 year ago
Tapi Mandz
Created by Tapi Mandz over 5 years ago
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GCSE PE
1 physical mental demands of performance
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4 Fatigue
1.4.1 Extreme mental or physical tiredness, causing temporary loss of strength and energy.
1.4.1.1 Muscle may not be able to perform due to local muscular fatigue
1.4.1.2 Concentration decreases and mistakes of judgement increase
1.4.1.3 Substitutions are there so players can be taken off when fatigued
1.5
1.6
2 circulatory system
3 respiratory system
4 types of training
4.1 Fartlek
4.2 Continous
4.3 <Circuit>
4.3.1 can be adjusted to fit any sport or activity whether aerobic or anaerobic
4.4 Weight
4.5 exercising stages
4.5.1 Warm Up: Low Level aerobic activty
4.5.1.1 Stretching: Dynamic or
4.5.1.1.1 Main actvity
4.5.1.1.1.1 Cool down
4.6 Interval
4.7 Aerobic > Anaerobic spectrum^^
5 international factors
6 diet
6.1 7 food groups
6.1.1 carbohydrates
6.1.1.1 fast release energy for athletes
6.1.1.2 carbo load: to not consume carbs 3 weeks prior to contest then consume carbs the following days leading to contest as the body will store more carbs incase of another starvation
6.1.2 fats
6.1.2.1 slow release energy stored around the body
6.1.3 protein
6.1.3.1 to repair cells and growth
6.1.3.1.1 emergency energy store (atrophy/catabolism) mostly in anorexics
6.1.4 vitamins
6.1.5 minerals
6.1.6 water
6.1.6.1 hydrate cells to keep function
6.1.7 fibre
7 principles of training
7.1 S-Specificity P-Progression O-overload R-Reversibility T-tedium
7.1.1 Overload: F-Frequency I-Intensity T-Time
7.1.1.1 Frequency: to increase ability by overloading the body, you could train more often or do an exercise more often
7.1.1.2 Intensity: to overload the body, you could increase the difficulty of level of exersion you're doing
7.1.1.3 Time: to overload the body you could increase the amount of time your body is doing an activity or decrease it if you're increasing intensity
7.1.2 Specificity: choose a plan specific to your sport or body
7.1.3 Tedium: if you stay with the same program you could become tired of the same program
7.1.4 Reversibility: if you stop training it takes a third of the time to lose your progress
7.1.5
8 individual differences
8.1 Gender
8.1.1 Body shape: Women have a flatter, broader pelvis, smaller lungs and hear and a higher body fat. Could be affected by metabolic rate
8.1.1.1 Smaller heart and lungs : lower oxygen carrying capacity
8.1.1.1.1 Muscle strength and power vary as women have less muscle mass
8.1.1.1.1.1 Women are more flexible as less muscle mass
8.1.1.1.1.1.1 Girls mature quicker than boys but after 11yo sexes are separated
8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Menstruation can affect Gameplay as women can't compete all the time
8.1.2 The differences are recognised so women can only compete against men in sports that don't involve strength and power
8.1.2.1 Women have been discriminated and were only recently been allowed o compete in most sports
8.2 enviromental
8.2.1 Weather: you have no control over his factor, if you're professional you may ravel abroad for he best weather
8.2.1.1 training you need to do your raining specific to your sport and weather may prohibit
8.2.1.1.1 competing is sometimes cancelled due to the weaher
8.2.2 Pollution stops performance outside as it can cause serious health issues. you are then prohibited to indoor training with climate control
8.2.3 Altitude: training at a high altitude can give someone a real benefit specifically in endurance sports
8.2.4 Humidity: high humidity ,make it difficult for performers to keep bodies cool enough to avoid dehydration
8.2.5 Terrain: you may need land specific to your sport such as a biker needs hills
8.3 Disability
8.3.1 -Physical -Mental -Temporary -Permanent
8.3.1.1 Adapted sports
8.3.1.1.1 Adapted equipment
8.3.1.1.1.1 Disability classification
8.3.1.1.1.1.1 Facilities: -Access -Parking -Provision (toilets, classes, elevators)
8.3.1.1.1.1.2 Athletics use numbers and letters to class level of disability, basketball tally the points and each team must keep under a certain score
8.3.1.1.1.2 Wheelchairs and other equipment are adapated for disabilitys
8.3.1.1.2 Wheelchair basketball
8.4 somatatype
8.4.1 Ectomorph
8.4.1.1 tend to be long limbed, thin, light weight, narrow shoulder and hips, very little muscle or fat: built for endurance sport or gymnastics
8.4.1.1.1 Horse Jockey, high jump, marathon
8.4.2 Endomorph
8.4.2.1 tend to have high muscle and fat mass, wide hips, narrow shoulders, place weight on easy, short legs in relation to the midsection, struggle with aerobic exercises suited to sports for there bulk
8.4.2.1.1 Rugby, sumo
8.4.3 Mesomorph
8.4.3.1 Wide shoulders, muscular arms and legs, narrow hips and a minimal amoun of fat. extreme mesomorph excel in strength, agility and speed sports
8.4.3.1.1 most sports, swimming, sprinting
8.4.4 doesn't mean you cant compete in a certain sport, no account of height was made
8.5 age
8.5.1 Flexibility is quiet high in teens but decreases with age
8.5.2 Strength decreases with age but we will no hit our maximal strength till late teens/early twenties
8.5.3 Oxygen capacity reduces with age and the heart becomes less efficient. the arteries gradually become less elastical and BP increases reducing blood flow
8.5.4 Skill and experience increase with age
8.5.5 With age the more you are likely to catch an injury
8.5.5.1 Being aware allows players to know there peak period
8.5.5.1.1 Bones become brittle with age osteoporrosis
8.5.6 Age divisions are used to reduce the chance of physical mismatch (under 10) and those who are more developed can play with a higher age group
8.6 activity levels and needs
8.6.1 Activity needs: will vary between activities as they place different demands on the performer.
8.6.1.1 Competitive
8.6.1.1.1 performers are needed to be very committed to train. they have to put aside a day to compete a week or spend more than two days a week training physical and skill activitys. if they are professional they focus purely on that activity
8.6.1.1.1.1 Performance levels vary as someone at county or international has to dedicate more time
8.6.1.1.1.1.1 low levels of activity have minimal benefits but high level of participation has various health benefits "A complete sense of mental, physical, and social wellbeing, in the absence of infermity and disease"
8.6.1.1.1.2 Age will affect this as someone with a full time job cant compete as much as a student
8.6.1.2 Recreational
8.6.1.2.1 These are not as demanding as they do not require special training or prep. the only requirements are dedicating a small amount of time at a convenient time.
8.7 Risk and challenge
8.7.1 Some sports need risk and challlenge to make them worthwhile such as climbing or rowing. once one level is complete, the next level is then attempted. this can be completing a marathon or tackle a bigger opponent in rugby (physical challenge)
8.7.1.1 Risk assessment must be made before competing so no participant is injured or a high risk.
8.7.2 Risk control
8.7.2.1 Participants must stick to guidelines and rules so hey do not injure themselves or others.
8.7.2.1.1 Organisers need to make sure hat the groups are warmed up properly and he participants are put in correct groups for gender, age so risk is low
8.7.3 Safe guarding: it is important that telephones are available for emergency contact. also first aid is available along with qualified first aiders
8.8 Training
8.8.1 Level of participation
8.8.1.1 Competing at the highest level athletes have to mind that they peak at the right time this coincides with a tournaments.
8.8.1.1.1 Pre season: focused on fitness even incoorperating a technique
8.8.1.1.1.1 Peak season: main part of the season, continues fitness work, while focusing on skills while competing
8.8.1.1.1.1.1 Post/off season: mainly period for rest and recovery, but need to maintain general fitness.
8.8.1.2 Available time
8.8.1.2.1 Many swimmers have to train before public hours are open. can only improve b y training and time is needed
8.8.1.3 Available funding
8.8.1.3.1 More money, better equiptment, better facilities,better trainers. sponsorship may be need
9 Social factors
9.1 influence/role of media
9.2 role model
9.3 popularity
9.4 Ict in sport
9.5 health and safety
9.6 Science in sport
9.7 influence/role of sponsors
9.8 Sport and equiptment rules
10 Healthy School
11 muscle system
12
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