GCSE History- The Transformation of Surgery

Chandni  Patel
Mind Map by Chandni Patel, updated more than 1 year ago
Chandni  Patel
Created by Chandni Patel over 5 years ago
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GCSE History Mind Map on GCSE History- The Transformation of Surgery, created by Chandni Patel on 01/24/2015.

Resource summary

GCSE History- The Transformation of Surgery
1 Key Words
1.1 Amputation
1.1.1 The cutting off of a limb
1.2 Anaesthetic
1.2.1 A substance that makes you less aware of pain
1.3 Tourniquet
1.3.1 Something tied around a part of the body to put pressure on a blood vessel and stop the blood loss
1.4 Antiseptic
1.4.1 Something that fights against sepsis and the microbes that create infection
1.5 Aseptic
1.5.1 Sterile
1.6 Sepsis
1.6.1 A condition in which harmful bacteria affect the flesh, normally leading to infection and decaying flesh
1.7 Cautery
1.7.1 The use of heat to seal blood vessels and stop bleeding
1.8 Ligature
1.8.1 A thread tied around a blood vessel to stop bleeding
1.9 Shock
1.9.1 When there isn't enough blood in the circulatory system to keep the body working properly
1.10 Transfusion
1.10.1 The process of giving blood from a donor to the patient
2 Dealing with Pain
2.1 Surgery and anaesthetics in the 19th Century
2.1.1 The most common surgical operations were amputations
2.1.2 No use of anaethetics
2.1.3 Amputations
2.1.3.1 Were very painful
2.1.3.2 Assistants were needed to hold the patient down
2.1.3.3 Surgeons needed to work very quickly
2.1.3.4 Spectators would be watching
2.1.3.5 Surgeon and everyone else present would be in their own clothes
2.1.3.5.1 Surgeons would wear an od apron with blood on it to show experience
2.2 The Discovery of anaesthetics
2.2.1 1799- Humphrey Davy accidentally discovered nitrous oxide
2.2.1.1 1844-1845- Horace Wells used nitrous oxide when extracting teeth
2.2.2 1846- William Morton found ether had a more longer lasting affect
2.2.2.1 1846- Robert Liston uses ether as an anaesthetic
2.2.3 1847- James Simpson uses chloroform as an anaesthetic
2.2.3.1 1848- First death as a result of chloroform
2.2.3.2 1858- Queen Victoria uses chloroform during childbirth
2.2.3.3 John Snow invented the chloroform inhaler
2.2.4 1905- Novocaine used as an anaesthetic
2.3 1850-1875- The Black Period of Surgery
3 Dealing with Infection
3.1 Early attempts to control Infection
3.1.1 Ignaz Semmelweiss
3.1.1.1 1846- Found that making the medical students wash their hands with chlorinated solution between patients reduced the death rate
3.1.2 Florence Nightingale
3.1.2.1 Set high standards of hygiene in the Crimean War (1854-1856)
3.2 Lister uses carbolic acid as an antiseptic
3.2.1 Opposition to Lister
3.2.1.1 Some doctors didn't accept microbes could cause infection
3.2.1.2 Using carbolic acid slowed down the process leading to problems of blood loss
3.2.1.3 Doctors didn't always copy properly so didn't get improved results
3.2.1.4 Lister kept changing his ideas
3.2.1.5 The equipment was heavy and expensive
3.2.1.6 Some surgeons got good results without carbolic acid
3.2.1.7 Nurses didn't want extra work
3.3 1878- Robert Koch develops the steam steriliser
4 Dealing with Blood Loss
4.1 The usual way to deal with blood loss was cautery or ligatures in 17th and 18th century
4.1.1 The ligatures were developed by Ambroise Pare.
4.2 Storing Blood
4.2.1 1901- Karl Landsteiner discovers blood groups
4.2.2 1915- Lewisohn uses sodium citrate to stop blood from clotting
4.2.3 1916- Rous and Turner use citrate glucose solution to store blood for longer
4.2.4 1917- First blood depot in the Battle of Cambrai
4.2.5 Richard Weil found blood can be store in refrigerated conditions
5 Factors affecting the Development of Surgery
5.1 War
5.1.1 Harold Gillies set up a Plastic Surgery unit in 1916
5.1.2 Use of prosthetic limbs
5.2 Science and Technology
5.2.1 1853- Alexander Wood invents Hypodermic needle
5.2.2 1895- Roentgen discovers X-rays
5.3 Communication
5.3.1 Medical Journals
5.3.1.1 Lister's Germ Theory
5.3.1.2 The work of Semmelweiss
5.3.2 Newspapers and Public Opinion
5.3.2.1 Queen Victoria receiving chloroform
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