Health and the people part 1: Medieval period

Frank Shrimpton
Mind Map by Frank Shrimpton, updated more than 1 year ago
Frank Shrimpton
Created by Frank Shrimpton over 1 year ago
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Description

Designed to help revise for history gcse with AQA, on the topic Health and the People. This covers the period from around the 11th to the 14th century, up until the renaissance. Colour coded to help with 16 - markers. Enjoy!

Resource summary

Health and the people part 1: Medieval period
  1. Beliefs about causes of disease
    1. God
      1. You live sinfully? Here, have this disease.
        1. Would always create a plant to treat his diseases (the doctrine of signatures)
          1. People experiment more
            1. They actually find plants to help cure some diseases
        2. Bad smells (miasma)
          1. They found diseases more common in cities
            1. Cities = stinky
              1. Therefore stinky = disease
          2. Supernatural
            1. Witches
              1. Demons
              2. Four humours
                1. Ancient Greek belief
                  1. Galen believed
                    1. Galen christian, so church believed
                  2. An imbalance of these causes disease
                    1. Yellow bile
                      1. Black bile
                        1. Phlegm
                          1. Blood
                            1. Need to rebalance to cure
                          2. Similar to ancient beliefs
                            1. Progress had stalled
                          3. Diagnosis of disease
                            1. Urine charts
                              1. Doctors would look at, smell and taste patients' urine
                                1. They match its properties to a chart, telling them what disease it is
                                2. Occasionally useful
                                  1. Unreliable
                                    1. At least they were trying to observe symptoms
                                    2. Zodiac man
                                      1. Each star sign corresponds to a part of the body
                                        1. Uses four humours to diagnose
                                      2. Surgery
                                        1. Key figures
                                          1. John Arderne (1307 - 1392)
                                            1. First notable English surgeon
                                              1. Best surgeon at the time
                                                1. Could treat major wounds
                                                2. Didn't rely on Galen and Hippocrates
                                                  1. Wrote some books
                                                    1. 'The Practice of Surgery'
                                                  2. Experienced from treating soldiers
                                                    1. Hundred years war
                                                      1. Good at 'fistula in ano'
                                                        1. 50% success rate
                                                      2. Discovered an anaesthetic
                                                        1. Made of henbane, opium and hemlock
                                                          1. First real anaesthetic
                                                        2. Decent guy
                                                          1. Recommended good bedside manner
                                                            1. Charged rich a lot, served poor for free
                                                              1. Ahead of his time
                                                          2. Abulcasis
                                                            1. Muslim dude
                                                              1. More compassionate towards ill
                                                                1. Ideas found due to crusades
                                                                  1. Thanks to religion
                                                                2. Invented surgical instruments
                                                                  1. Wrote books
                                                                    1. Made cauterisation popular
                                                                      1. More survive wounds
                                                                    2. Hugh of Lucca
                                                                      1. Said pus didn't help wounds
                                                                        1. Didn't fit with Galen
                                                                          1. Church didn't agree
                                                                            1. People reluctant to disregard Galen
                                                                            2. De Chauliac didn't agree
                                                                              1. Wrote in book
                                                                                1. Hugh's ideas didn't catch on
                                                                        2. Performed by:
                                                                          1. Barber surgeons
                                                                            1. Trained by apprenticeship
                                                                              1. Charged a lot
                                                                            2. VERY dangerous
                                                                              1. No anaesthetics
                                                                                1. Die of shock
                                                                                2. No ability to stop/prevent infection
                                                                                  1. Even if it was successful you may die
                                                                                  2. Blood loss a huge challenge
                                                                                    1. Have to do it very fast
                                                                                      1. Large chance of mistakes
                                                                                        1. Can't find better methods
                                                                                        2. Some cauterised
                                                                                    2. Treatment of Disease
                                                                                      1. 'Hospitals'
                                                                                        1. Set up by church
                                                                                          1. Wanted to heal people like Jesus did
                                                                                            1. Clean(ish)
                                                                                              1. Actually somewhat helpful
                                                                                            2. Dealt with small complaints
                                                                                              1. Didn't let badly sick people in
                                                                                              2. Prayed and cared for patients
                                                                                                1. Couldn't actually help a lot
                                                                                              3. Lazar houses
                                                                                                1. Lepers went there to stop infecting others
                                                                                                2. Apothecaries
                                                                                                  1. Herbs and spices
                                                                                                    1. Some worked
                                                                                                    2. 7 year apprenticeship
                                                                                                    3. Wise Women
                                                                                                      1. Just someone who knew of plants that could help
                                                                                                        1. Wisdom from family
                                                                                                        2. Four Humours
                                                                                                          1. Rebalance humours
                                                                                                            1. Purge bowels
                                                                                                              1. Useful sometimes
                                                                                                              2. Blood letting
                                                                                                                1. Dangerous
                                                                                                            2. Pilgrimages
                                                                                                              1. God will help you get better
                                                                                                            3. Public Health
                                                                                                              1. Cities
                                                                                                                1. Attitude to cleanliness
                                                                                                                  1. Don't really care
                                                                                                                    1. Couldn't afford to keep clean
                                                                                                                      1. Very little government help
                                                                                                                        1. Some tried a little
                                                                                                                      2. Some belief in miasma
                                                                                                                        1. Therefore some wanted to clean up
                                                                                                                      3. Water supply
                                                                                                                        1. Wells often near to cesspits
                                                                                                                          1. Contamination
                                                                                                                          2. Rivers
                                                                                                                            1. Also used for sewage
                                                                                                                              1. Unpurified water
                                                                                                                              2. Some took directly from springs
                                                                                                                                1. Less likely to be infected
                                                                                                                              3. Sewage
                                                                                                                                1. Thrown onto streets
                                                                                                                                  1. Cesspits
                                                                                                                                    1. Often overflowing
                                                                                                                                    2. Some had own outhouses
                                                                                                                                      1. Money left in wills to build public toilets
                                                                                                                                      2. Some better than others
                                                                                                                                        1. Coventry
                                                                                                                                          1. Fines for not cleaning street
                                                                                                                                            1. Taxes pay for waste collection
                                                                                                                                              1. Waste sold to farmers
                                                                                                                                                1. Waste disposal sites out of town
                                                                                                                                                  1. No sewage dumped into rivers
                                                                                                                                                    1. Council very good
                                                                                                                                                2. Monastries
                                                                                                                                                  1. Attitude to cleanliness
                                                                                                                                                    1. Good - Holy, celibate and pure
                                                                                                                                                      1. Had to be clean
                                                                                                                                                        1. Worship God
                                                                                                                                                        2. Wealthy - could afford to keep clean
                                                                                                                                                          1. Away from filthy towns
                                                                                                                                                          2. Sewage
                                                                                                                                                            1. Privies empty into cesspits
                                                                                                                                                              1. Can be washed out by river
                                                                                                                                                              2. Manure transported out
                                                                                                                                                              3. Water supply
                                                                                                                                                                1. Rivers
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Filtered water
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Pipes divert water
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Some goes to brew houses
                                                                                                                                                                  2. The Black Death (1348)
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Specifics:
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Came from East via trade links
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Two types:
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Bubonic
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Spread by fleas
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Big black buboes formed
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Then fever and vomiting
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Then death
                                                                                                                                                                              2. Pneumonic
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Spread through droplets in the air from an infected person
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Rarer but deadlier
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Killed 1/3 to 1/2 of the population
                                                                                                                                                                                3. Beliefs about it
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Causes
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Miasma
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Four humours
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. God
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Planets alligning weirdly
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Chinese earthqukes
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Jews
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. 'Treatments'
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Before contracting
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Pray and march through streets
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. More exposed to it
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Burn big candles
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Don't eat much
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Don't bathe (pores let disease in)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. No sex (weakens you with excitement)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Avoid victims
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Worked
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Clean up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Carry flowers (miasma)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Have wine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. These were mostly rubbish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Go to church
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. After contracting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Pop buboes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Attach live pidgeon to buboes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Drink vinegar and mercury
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Toxic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Flagellate (whip self)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Pray
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. These were all rubbish
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Fewer workers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Bad economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Starve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Inflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Peasants go to new lords
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. New laws to stop this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Peasants' revolt (1381)
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