Geography - Tourism

Grace Evans
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

Note: Not complete

128
11
0
Grace Evans
Created by Grace Evans over 4 years ago
Geography - Tourism - Key Words
Grace Evans
coastal landscapes
meg watts
Favela Bairro Project- Squatter Settlement case study Changing urban environments
a a
Biology
Holly Bamford
Biology B1
Kelsey Phillips
Geography - Population
Grace Evans
Blackpool- Coastal Resort Study
a a
Kenya- Tropical Mass Tourism Case Study
a a
Economic migrates in the EU (Poland to UK migration)
a a
One child policy, China- Population Control Case Study
a a
Geography - Tourism

Attachments:

1 Tourists are people who visit somewhere for leisure purposes. The Tourist Industry is the businesses and services that are provided for tourists.
2 Growth of Tourism
2.1 Factors encouraging the growth of tourism

Annotations:

  • -More/faster/cheaper ways to travel (eg. commercial flights, trains, boats) -Countries economies are growing. They can improve facilities for tourists. -People are earning more disposable income -Better international mobility. People are free to travel between countries -more countries are becoming tourist friendly -package deals make holidays much easier and more affordable -the internet, websites give lots of opinions, information, cheap deals, either. -cheaper holidays due to budget airline and comparison websites -global events, showcase the best of a place and encourage people to go to the area -tv adverts encourage consumers to book holidays - more people are travelling eg for business, to see family, to do certain activities etc. -employers give more paid holiday leave so  people have more free time to go on holiday            
2.2 Factors that might stop the growth of tourism

Annotations:

  • -Natural disasters -conflicts/wars -recession -terrorism -rising prices of travel -weather
2.3 Key tourist locations
2.3.1 Cities

Annotations:

  • People are attracted to cities by the culture (eg museums, art galleries), entertainment (bars, restaurants, bars, theatres), and shopping.  Popular destinations include London, Paris, New York and Rome
2.3.2 Beaches

Annotations:

  • People are attracted to coastal areas by the beaches and activities like swimming, snorkelling, fishing and water sports. Popular destinations include Spain, The Caribbean and the Maldives
2.3.3 Mountains

Annotations:

  • People are attracted to mountain areas by the beautiful scenery and activities like hiking, climbing, skiing and snowboarding. Popular destinations include the Alps, the Dolomites and the Rockies
2.4 Economic importance of Touism
2.4.1 MEDC's

Annotations:

  • -Creates jobs for local people eg. restaurants and hotels. This helps to grow the economy. -Helps bring in new businesses to supply for the tourist industry. Again helping to grow and broaden the economy -For example tourism in France generated 35 billion Euros in 2006 and created 2 million jobs
2.4.2 LEDC's

Annotations:

  • -It provides many jobs for the population-Helps boost the economy-gives countries new currency to trade with-helps bring in new businesses-helps to promote the country and gives people more understanding of their culture -However MEDC's become more independent on the income from tourism than richer ones, eg tourism contributes 3% of the UK's GNP compared to 15% of Kenya's
3 UK Tourism
3.1 The Butler Model
3.1.1 Blackpool CASE STUDY

Attachments:

3.1.1.1 Specific Butler Model
3.1.2
3.2 Factors affecting change
3.2.1 World Economy

Annotations:

  • -In times of recession people tend to cut back on luxuries like holidays so fewer overseas visitors come to the UK. However its not that bad as it means more UK citizens chose to holiday in the UK.
3.2.2 Exchange rate

Annotations:

  • The value of the pound compared with other currencies affects the number of visitors. If it is low, the UK is cheaper to visit so more overseas visitors come
3.2.3 Terrorism and conflict

Annotations:

  • Wars and terrorist threats mean people are less willing to visit affected areas. Tourism fell sharply after the 2005 London bombings
3.2.4 Major Events

Annotations:

  • Big events can attract huge numbers of visitors. Eg Liverpool was European Capital of Culture in 2008 and as a result 3.5million people visited that had never been before.
3.2.5 Weather

Annotations:

  • -Bad weather can discourage tourists from visiting the UK eg. a really wet summer in 2007 was blamed fro the drop in the number of overseas visitors
3.3 Contributions to UK economy

Annotations:

  • - 32 million overseas visitors to Britain in 2008 -The UK is popular for it's; countryside, historic landmarks, churches and cathedrals, and its castles and palaces -Half of all the visitors to Britain visit London, which is popular for its museums, theatres and shopping -In 2007 tourism contributed £114 billion to the economy and employed 1.4 million people
4 Tourism in an extreme environment
4.1 Attractions

Annotations:

  • -Adventure Holiday Activities eg. Jeep tours, river rafting, trekking. -The element of danger and risk -Some wildlife can only been seen in these areas eg. polar bears in the Arctic -Some scenery can only be seen in certain places eg. icebergs, glaciers    
4.2 Reasons for increase

Annotations:

  • -Improvements in transport have made it quicker and easier to get to these often far away or remote places-People are keen to see places like Antarctica for themselves while they have the chance, before the icecaps melt due to global warming. -Tourism in extreme environments is quite expensive but people now have more disposable income so more people can afford to go. -Adventure holidays are becoming more popular because of TV programmes and advertising
4.3 Impacts

Annotations:

  • The ecosystems in extreme environments are usually delicately balanced, because its so difficult for life to survive in the harsh conditions there. The presence of tourists can upset this fragile balance and cause serious environmental problems.
4.3.1 Himalayas

Annotations:

  • 1) Trees are cut down to provide fuel for trekkers and other tourists, leading to deforestation which in turn destroys habitats. 2) Deforestation also means that there are fewer trees to intercept rain. So more water reaches channels causing flooding 3) Tree roots normally hold the soil together so deforestation also leads to soil erosion. If soil is washed into rivers it raises the river bed so it can't hold as much water which can cause flooding as well. 4) The sheer volume of tourists causes foot path erosion which can lead to landslides 5) Toilets are poor or non-existent so rivers become polluted by sewage 6)Tourist can also drop litter which can cause damage to the environment   4)
5 Mass Tourism
5.1 Impacts
5.1.1 Economic
5.1.1.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • -Brings money to the local economy -Creates jobs for local people -Increase the income of industries that supply tourism eg. farming  
5.1.1.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • - A lot of the profit made from tourism is kept by the large travel companies and TNC's rather than going to the local economy (leakage of profits)
5.1.2 Social
5.1.2.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • -Lots of jobs means that young people are more likely to stay in the area -Improved roads, communications, and infrastructure for tourists also benefit the local people -Income from tourism can be reinvested in local community projects 
5.1.2.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • -The tourism jobs available are often badly paid and seasonal -Traffic and congestion caused by tourism can inconvenience local people -The behaviour of tourist can offend, upset or disrupt locals
5.1.3 Environment
5.1.3.1 Positives

Annotations:

  • -Income from tourists can be reinvested in protecting the environment eg. to run National Parks or pay for conservation work
5.1.3.2 Negatives

Annotations:

  • -Transporting lots of people long distances releases lots of greenhouse gases that cause global warming -Tourism can increase litter and cause pollution eg. increased sewage can cause river pollution -Tourism can lead to the destruction of natural habitats eg. sightseeing boats can damage coral reefs.
6 Ecotourism
6.1 Rules of responsible tourism

Annotations:

  • 1) Ecotourism is tourism that doesn't harm the environment and benefits local people 2) It involves CONSERVATION (protecting and managing the environment) and STEWARDSHIP (taking responsibility for conserving the environment) 3) Conservation and stewardship should involve local people and local organisations so that local people benefit 4) Ecotourism should be small scale with only a few people going to the area at a time to help keep the environmental impact of tourism low 5) Often involves activities such as wildlife viewing and walking    
6.2 Benefits
6.2.1 Environmental

Annotations:

  • - Local people are encouraged to conserve the environment rather than use it for activities that can be damaging eg logging or faming. This is because they can only earn money from ecotourism if the environment isn't damaged. -It reduces poaching and hunting of endangered species, since locals will benefit more from protecting  these species for tourism that killing them -Ecotourism projects try to reduce the use of fossil fuels eg. by using renewable energy sources and local food (which isn't transported as far so less fossil fuels is used). -Waste that tourists create is disposed of carefully to prevent pollution.
6.2.2 Social

Annotations:

  • - People have better and more stable incomes in ecotourism than other jobs eg farming -Many ecotourism schemes fund community projects eg schools water tanks and health centres
6.2.3 Economic

Annotations:

  • - Ecotourism creates jobs for local people (eg as guides or in tourist lodges) which helps the local economy grow -Local people who are no directly employed by tourism can still make money by selling local crafts to visitors or supplying the tourist industry with goods eg. food
6.3 Sustainable Development

Annotations:

  • 1) Sustainable development means improving the quality of life for people, but doing it in a way that doesn't stop people in the future getting what they need (by not damaging the environment or depleting resources) 2) Ecotourism helps areas to develop by increasing the quality of life for local people - the profits from ecotourism can be used to build schools or healthcare facilities 3) The development is sustainable because its done without damaging the environment - without ecotourism people may have to make a living to improve their lives by doing something that harms the environment eg logging, poaching etc
6.4 Basecamp Masai Mara CASE STUDY

Attachments: