AS Unit 1 Biology: Content

zoerswann
Mind Map by zoerswann, updated more than 1 year ago
zoerswann
Created by zoerswann over 6 years ago
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Biology AS Unit 1 MindMap: A summary of key points and biological principles

Resource summary

AS Unit 1 Biology: Content
  1. Lifestyle, Health and Risk
    1. Transport and Circulation
      1. Water
        1. Solvent
          1. Molecule has an uneven charge, polar. Negative Oxygen, Positive Hydrogen
            1. Ionic substances can dissolve easily
              1. Glucose (-OH)
                1. Salt
                  1. Amino Acids (-COOHJ) (-NH2)
                2. Hydrogen Bonds form between molecules
                  1. Cohesion (important in the xylem)
                    1. High Specific Heat Capacity. So temperature fluctuations can be managed and are small
                      1. Sweating and transpiration cool the body down
                  2. A Mass Transport System, using diffusion. Big organisms have smaller SA/V. Need to overcome inefficiency: need MTS
                    1. Artery
                      1. Vein
                        1. Capillary
                      2. Cardiac Cycle and Heart Rate
                        1. Systole
                          1. Contraction of the muscle
                          2. Diastole
                            1. Relaxation of the muscle
                            2. Valves
                              1. Atrioventricular
                                1. Semi-lunar
                                2. Pressures within the heart cause valves to open and close. Elastic recoil lowers pressure in atria and ventricles
                                3. CVD
                                  1. Blood Clotting
                                    1. As a vital defence mechanism, it minimises blood loss, prevents entry of pathogens, provide framework for repairs.
                                      1. Can also block arteries: cell death
                                        1. Damage to blood vessel
                                          1. Exposes Collagen
                                            1. Platelets attach
                                              1. Platelets release thromboplastin
                                                1. Calcium and K catalyses thromboplastin to convert prothrombin to thrombin
                                                  1. This converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin.
                                                    1. This makes a network of fibres to trap RBC and debris to make a clot.
                                        2. Atherosclerosis
                                          1. Damage to endothelial Lining
                                            1. Increased Risk of Blood Clotting
                                              1. Inflammatory Response: White Blood Cells move to artery wall
                                                1. Cholesterol builds up: ATHEROMA
                                                  1. Build up of Calcium salts and fibres: PLAQUE FORMATION
                                                    1. Narrowing of artery
                                                      1. Increased Blood Pressure
                                                        1. POSITIVE feedback
                                            2. Treatments
                                              1. Reduced Lifestyle Changes
                                                1. Anti-hypertensives
                                                  1. Duiretics
                                                    1. increased urine volume lowers bp and vol.
                                                    2. Beta Blockers
                                                      1. Block hormones= contractions less powerful
                                                      2. ACE inhibitors
                                                        1. blocks angiotensin which causes arterial constriction
                                                      3. Aspirin/Clopidogrel
                                                        1. Platelet Inhibitory drug: makes less sticky
                                                        2. Anticoagulants
                                                          1. Warfarin: reduce blood clots
                                                          2. Statins
                                                            1. Lower Cholesterol by blocking liver enzyme
                                                        3. Structure and function of Carbohydrates
                                                          1. Monosaccharides
                                                            1. Glucose
                                                              1. Galactose
                                                                1. Fructose
                                                                2. Disaccharides
                                                                  1. Sucrose
                                                                    1. Lactose
                                                                      1. Maltose
                                                                      2. Polysaccharides
                                                                        1. INSOLUBLE
                                                                          1. Unbranched
                                                                            1. Amylose
                                                                              1. In Plants
                                                                                1. In Starch
                                                                                  1. Alpha Glucose- tight spirals
                                                                                    1. 1,4
                                                                                  2. Branched
                                                                                    1. Amylopectin
                                                                                      1. Lots of terminal ends, digested more rapidly than amylose
                                                                                        1. In starch
                                                                                          1. In Plants
                                                                                            1. 1,6
                                                                                            2. Glycogen
                                                                                              1. Animals, Bacteria Plants
                                                                                                1. Storage
                                                                                                  1. Glucose
                                                                                                    1. Compact
                                                                                              2. Bonding
                                                                                                1. Glycosidic links
                                                                                                  1. Forming: Condensation: Loss of 1 H20
                                                                                                    1. Breaking: Hydrolysis: Addiction of 1 H20
                                                                                                      1. Catalysed by enzymes
                                                                                                  2. Structure and Function of Lipids
                                                                                                    1. Insoluble in water
                                                                                                      1. Soluble in ethanol
                                                                                                        1. Triglycerides
                                                                                                          1. 3 fatty acids
                                                                                                            1. Glycerol
                                                                                                              1. CH2OH CHOH CH2OH
                                                                                                              2. Ester Bonds
                                                                                                                1. between fatty acids and Glycerol
                                                                                                                2. Fatty Acids vary
                                                                                                                  1. Length
                                                                                                                    1. Kinks/Double bonds
                                                                                                                      1. combination of acids
                                                                                                                      2. Saturated Fats
                                                                                                                        1. Strong intermolecular bonds
                                                                                                                          1. Solid
                                                                                                                            1. Straight chain
                                                                                                                            2. Unsaturated Fats
                                                                                                                              1. Poly
                                                                                                                                1. Weaker bonds
                                                                                                                                  1. Liquid
                                                                                                                                    1. many double bonds
                                                                                                                                    2. Mono
                                                                                                                                      1. Weak bonds
                                                                                                                                        1. Liquid
                                                                                                                                  2. Reducing Risk
                                                                                                                                    1. Population studies on Risk Factors
                                                                                                                                      1. Cohort studies
                                                                                                                                        1. Large number of people followed over long periods of time
                                                                                                                                          1. Monitored to see if diseases occurs
                                                                                                                                          2. Case-Control Studies
                                                                                                                                            1. Case compared to control
                                                                                                                                          3. Risk Factors for CVD
                                                                                                                                            1. Genetic Factors
                                                                                                                                              1. HBP
                                                                                                                                                1. Poor Cholesterol Metabolism
                                                                                                                                                2. Age
                                                                                                                                                  1. Elasticity/width in heart/arteries reduced
                                                                                                                                                  2. Smoking
                                                                                                                                                    1. High Blood Pressure
                                                                                                                                                      1. Lifestyle
                                                                                                                                                        1. Diet
                                                                                                                                                          1. Obesity
                                                                                                                                                          2. Exercise
                                                                                                                                                          3. Mutations in Genes relative to HDL:LDL production
                                                                                                                                                            1. Perceived Risk
                                                                                                                                                              1. Actual Risk
                                                                                                                                                                1. Gender
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Oestrogen gives women protection from CVDs before menopause
                                                                                                                                                                  2. Cholestrol
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Lipoproteins
                                                                                                                                                                      1. HDLs
                                                                                                                                                                        1. GOOD
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Formed from unsat fats
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Transport to Liver where broken down
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Reduces Cholestrol
                                                                                                                                                                              2. LDLs
                                                                                                                                                                                1. BAD
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Formed from sat fats
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Bind to cell surfaces receptors, become saturated, cant break down Cholestrol
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Reduce activity
                                                                                                                                                                                2. BMI= KG/M2
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Antioxidants
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Free Radicals: damage cells, need vitamin E/C to provide H to stabilise
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Reducing agents
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Good Studies
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Valid
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Reliable
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. non-Bias/controlled
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Large sample size
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Genes and Health
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Structure and Role of DNA and RNA
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Nucleotides
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Phosphate
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Organic Base
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Sugar
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Deoxy: DNA, Ribose:RNA
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Condensation reactions
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. RNA
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Triplets=Amino
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. DNA
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Double Helix, complementary Base pairing
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Purines
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Adenine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Guanine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Pyrimidines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Thymine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Cytosine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. DNA replication and Protein synthesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. DNA carries codes for Proteins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Semi-Conservative theory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Dispersive/Fragmentory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Conservative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. 1. Hydrogen Bonds split
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. 2. DNA nucleotides pair up with bases. DNA Polymerase links adjacent nucleotides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. 3.Two identical daughter Strands created
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. DNA Copied
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. mRNA made in Transcription
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. 1. DNA unwinds. Hydrogen bonds break.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. One strand used (antisense)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. 2. Uracil pairs with Adenine. Ribonucleotides pair up complementory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 3. RNA Polymerase used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Then Translation...
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. mRNA to protein
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. On Ribosome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Transfer RNA translates base sequence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Brings Amino Acid to bind
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Makes polypeptide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Genes, Mutation and CF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Change in the base sequence of DNA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Causing deformities within the protein being created
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Active sites etc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. CF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. CFTR Protein
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Excess water:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Na+ pumped across BASAL MEMBRANE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Na+ diffuses through sodium channels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Cl- follows down con gradient
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Water drawn out by osmosis due to high salt content in tissue fluid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Not there, doesn't work.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Effects of CF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Gas Exchange
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. In Lungs, Mucus: More infection, harbour pathogens.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Block bronchioles/ reduces aveoli effectiveness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Digestion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Mucus blocks Pancreatic Duct: Digestive enzymes cant react small intestine. Tiredness, difficult gaining weight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Damage insulin cells by fibrosed cysts, diabetes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Reproduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Sperm cant leave/ Mucus blocks cervix
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Genetic Inheritance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Homozygous (same alleles)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Phenotypes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Genotypes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Heterozygous
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Dominance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Recessive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Gene Therapy and Genetic Screening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Somatic Therapy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Use a Vector: Liposome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. allele inserted into cell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Germ-Line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Amniocentesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. CVS Sampling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Ethics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Rights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Risk of Miscarriage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Abortion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Costs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Mental and emotional issues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Cell Membranes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Phospholipid Bilayer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Hydrophobic tails inside the bilayer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Phosphate, Glycerol, 2 fatty acids
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Proteins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Channels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Glycolipids/proteins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Fluid Mosaic Model
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Phospholipids are triglycerides: Polar: Hydrophilic phosphate heads on the outside
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Polar molecules cannot easily pass through: lipid soluble can.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Cholestrol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. Enzyme Action and Rates of Reaction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Enzymes: Catalysts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Globular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Lock and Key theory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Active Sites
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Activation Energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Lowers Ea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Creating suitable Ph
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. assisting in breaking/making bonds as charged groups in active site interact and distort shape of substrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Structure of Amino Acids and Proteins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Carboxylic Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Amine Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Hydrogen and a Residual Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. 4 Levels of Structures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Primary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Dipeptide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Peptide bonds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Condensation reactions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Polypeptide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Secondary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Alpha Helix
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Beta Pleated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. The hydrogen bonding between amino acids
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Tertiary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. 3D shape
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Hydrophobic interactions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Hydrophilic outside of protein
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. disulphide bridges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Hydrogen bonds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Ionic bonds between R groups
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Covalent bonds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Quaternary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 2 or more polypeptide chains joining together: haemoglobin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. Globular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. enzymes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Complicated tertiary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Fibrous
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. collagen/keratin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. little tertiary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Transport across Cell Membranes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Diffusion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Osmosis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Facilitated Diffusion- protein channel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Active Transport- ATP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Carrier Proteins, up concentration gradient
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Exo and Endocytosis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. Gas Exchange surfaces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. large area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. thinner diffusion distance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Concentration gradient
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Core Practicals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Daphnia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Vitamin C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. DCPIP- goes colourless when reduced (gaining e-)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. 1. Calibrate (known volume of conc. of Vit C)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Add unknown solution, until colourless
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Errors:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Systematic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Burette/pipette error in volume
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Not measured at right place (meniscus)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Random
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. end point misjudged, drops may be too much/too little
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Beetroot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Cut equal sizes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Rinse. Place in equal volumes of water (range of temperatures. Equal Time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Remove, shake to disperse pigment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Colourimeter
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