Restless Earth

J_McNally
Mind Map by J_McNally, updated more than 1 year ago
J_McNally
Created by J_McNally over 6 years ago
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Edexcel GCSE Geography B Unit 1

Resource summary

Restless Earth
  1. Case studies
    1. Earthquake in Kobe, Japan 1995
      1. Magnitude 7.2
        1. 5000 dead, 26000 injured
          1. Disrupted transport/communication
            1. £100 billion in damages
              1. Caused homelessness and unemployment
              2. Eruption at Mt. Nyiragongo, Congo 2002
                1. 1000km wide river of fast-flowing basalt lava
                  1. 100 died, 400 000 evacuated
                    1. 12 500 homes destroyed
                  2. Tectonic plates
                    1. Plate boundaries
                      1. Destructive
                        1. Two plates collide and one flows beneath the other (subduction)
                          1. Causes earthquakes and volcanoes
                            1. Form composite volcanoes
                            2. Constructive
                              1. Convection currents pull the crust apart, forming a volcanic ridge
                                1. Form shield volcanoes
                                2. Conservative
                                  1. Two plates slide past eachother
                                    1. Creates fault lines
                                      1. Causes earthquakes
                                      2. Collision
                                        1. Two continental plates collide, causing them to buckle
                                          1. Causes earthquakes
                                        2. Convection currents
                                          1. 1. Core heats molten rock in mantle
                                            1. 2. Heated rock rises to Earth's surface
                                              1. 3. Current moves tectonic plates
                                                1. 4. Molten rock cools and flows downwards
                                                2. Crust
                                                  1. Continental crust
                                                    1. Less dense, granite rocks
                                                    2. Oceanic crust
                                                      1. Denser basaltic rocks
                                                  2. Hazards
                                                    1. Volcanoes
                                                      1. Shield volcanoes
                                                        1. Formed on constructive plate boundaries
                                                          1. Eruptions of thin runny lava flow a long distance before solidifying
                                                            1. Gently sloping sides and a wide base
                                                          2. Contain basaltic magma
                                                            1. Very hot, but with low silica and gas content
                                                            2. Frequent, but not violent, eruptions
                                                            3. Composite volcanoes
                                                              1. Formed on destructive plate boundaries
                                                                1. Eruptions of viscous and sticky lava/ash which don't flow very far
                                                                  1. Steep sloping sides and a narrow base
                                                                    1. Thick layers of lava/ash
                                                                  2. Contain andesitic magma
                                                                    1. Less hot than basaltic magma, but with higher silica and gas content
                                                                    2. Erupt infrequently but violently
                                                                      1. Causes pyroclastic flows
                                                                        1. Fast moving current containing a mixture of ash, gases and rock
                                                                    3. Earthquakes
                                                                      1. Can be large amounts of death or injury
                                                                        1. Expensive property damage
                                                                          1. Remote areas cannot easily get help
                                                                        2. Managing hazards
                                                                          1. Earthquake-resistant design
                                                                            1. Very strong framework
                                                                              1. Rubber/steel foundations which move slightly
                                                                                1. Shock absorbers
                                                                                  1. Deeper foundations
                                                                                    1. Strengthened walls
                                                                                    2. Predicting earthquakes and eruptions
                                                                                      1. Difficulties - we don't know...
                                                                                        1. When/where they could happen
                                                                                          1. How big of an impact they will have
                                                                                            1. How many people live there/will be affected
                                                                                            2. What can help us predict them?
                                                                                              1. Strange animal and bird activity/migration
                                                                                                1. Increases in gas emissions or soil temperature
                                                                                                  1. Volcano swelling
                                                                                                    1. Small earthquakes getting more frequent
                                                                                                      1. Water getting warmer
                                                                                                    2. Relief
                                                                                                      1. Volunteers/emergency services
                                                                                                        1. Clear debris + help injured
                                                                                                        2. Clean water prevents spread of disease
                                                                                                          1. Food and medical help
                                                                                                            1. Radio communication
                                                                                                              1. Evacuation plan
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