Protest in Britain 1800-1914

laila vlietinck
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laila vlietinck
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Protest in Britain 5 case studies gcse history paper 2

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Protest in Britain 1800-1914
  1. The Luddites
    1. When?
      1. 1811-1817
      2. Who?
        1. People in the Midlands that worked in the knitting industry
        2. Why?
          1. Factory workers brought in new machines so the workers were no longer needed
            1. Machines made poorer quality product but were cheaper
            2. Their jobs and way of life were threatened
              1. At the same time people were losing jobs food prices were also increasing
                1. Increased poverty and people unable to support and provide for their families
                2. They were unable to vote for change
                  1. Ultimately wanted revolution
                  2. What?
                    1. They attacked the machines that had replaced them
                      1. In 1812 it was made a captial offence to wreck a machine
                      2. Led by 'General Ned Ludd'
                        1. Soldiers brought in to protect the factories and machines
                          1. Luddites fought with soldiers
                          2. Threatened and attacked bosses
                        2. Tolpuddle Martyrs
                          1. Who?
                            1. Group of farm labourers from Tolpuddle, Dorset
                            2. Why?
                              1. Already low wages were being cut
                                1. High food prices
                                  1. Poverty
                                  2. Influenced by Captain Swing riots 1830
                                  3. When?
                                    1. 1833-1836
                                    2. What?
                                      1. George Loveless set up a trade union in Tolpuddle
                                        1. The Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers
                                          1. Strikes were banned but the Trade Unions Act 1825 made trade unions legal
                                          2. The members swore the the society's rules
                                            1. When local magistry heard they obtianed the approval of Home Secretary Lord Melbourne to arrest them
                                              1. Huge fear of riots and revolution
                                                1. Arrested for taking an 'Unlawful Oath'
                                              2. Sentenced to minimum 7 years transportation
                                                1. Only served 3 years
                                                  1. Received unfair trial
                                                    1. One month after the trial a procession of 35 unions marched to Whitehall to give a 200000 signature petitions to Lord Melbourne but he refused
                                                2. Rebecca Riots
                                                  1. Who?
                                                    1. Farmers in Wales who dressed as women to hide their identity
                                                    2. Why?
                                                      1. Tolls
                                                        1. The Turnpike Trust added tolls on to gates
                                                          1. This heavily impacted farmers going to and from the market selling produce
                                                            1. Used money to add more gates
                                                          2. Tithes
                                                            1. Money paid to the Church of England
                                                              1. Most welsh farmers were metheodist or baptist and so tithes didn't benefit them
                                                            2. Poverty
                                                              1. Only had small farms
                                                                1. Income of £180 a year
                                                                  1. Rates, tolls, tithes, wages and rent left them with £50
                                                                2. Rates
                                                                  1. Was a tax for the poor u sed to build workhouses - where unemployed/ unable to work went - in England
                                                                    1. No benefit for them
                                                                3. What?
                                                                  1. Started to attack gates and the Turnpike Trust
                                                                    1. 1843 they turned on other targets - e.g farmers with more than one farm, fathers who deserted families and anyone the community disproved of
                                                                      1. Juries were afraid to convict rioters as they had become enforcers of community feelings
                                                                        1. Sir Robert Peel had tolls and tithes reduced for farmers and more welsh magistrates appointed
                                                                        2. When?
                                                                          1. 1839-1844
                                                                        3. Match Girls
                                                                          1. Who?
                                                                            1. Teenage girls and women that lived in poverty in East London and worked at Bryant and May Match-making Works
                                                                            2. When?
                                                                              1. 1888
                                                                              2. Why?
                                                                                1. Long hours and low pay
                                                                                  1. Fined for petty offences, asked for permission to use toilet, sometimes beaten, health risks - red phosphorous stained skin and 'phossy jaw' was fatal bone cancer
                                                                                    1. Clementina Black found out about the conditions and tried to encourage the women to join trade unions
                                                                                      1. Clemetina gave a talk to the London Fabian Society which took Annie Besant's interest. She then interviewed workers and published an article
                                                                                  2. What?
                                                                                    1. After Annie's article Mr Bryant denied the claims and made his workers sign a paper saying they were happy to work, those who refused were fired. That caused 200 women to leave work and go to Annie's office.
                                                                                      1. Advised by Clementina, Besant set up the Union of Match Workers and soon they were all striking. They were supported by the salvation army, newspapers and received strike pay
                                                                                  3. The Suffragettes (WSPU)
                                                                                    1. When?
                                                                                      1. 1897-1814
                                                                                      2. Who?
                                                                                        1. Radical women's rights group
                                                                                        2. Why?
                                                                                          1. Women were treated as the lesser gender
                                                                                            1. Men thought the woman's role was in the home
                                                                                              1. Was thought women were not rational and so incapable to make big decisions
                                                                                              2. THE VOTE
                                                                                                1. Policians thought you should own a home to get the vote
                                                                                                2. Suffragists (NUWSS) - the peaceful protesters - were not achieving a lot with their methods
                                                                                                3. What?
                                                                                                  1. Smashed windows, fires, bombed a politician's house, went on hunger strike etc.
                                                                                                    1. Cat and Mouse Act - when suffragettes went on hunger strike now, instead of force feeding them the women were released and re-arrested once they were stronger
                                                                                                      1. Emily Davidson became a martyr for the suffragettes during the 1913 Derby
                                                                                                        1. No vote until 1918
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