Second Language Acquisition Processes & Theories

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Second Language Acquisition Processes and Theories
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Second Language Acquisition Processes & Theories
1 Universal Grammar
1.1 Theorists
1.1.1 *Noam Chomsky
1.1.1.1 Richard Montague, Lydia White, Steven Pinker
1.2 Description
1.2.1 All languages share universal rules & principles

Annotations:

  • e.g. a distinction between nouns and verbs
1.2.2 Humans are hard-wired for language development

Annotations:

  • "Language Acquisition Device" (LAD) UG provides a "metaphor for the human linguistic potential" (Razfar)
1.2.3 Each language has unique rules & systems for rule application

Annotations:

  • There are a finite number of grammatical structures possible.
1.2.4 We can generate completely new language structures

Annotations:

  • "Poverty of Stimulus"
2 Monitor Model
2.1 Theorists
2.1.1 Henry Krashen
2.2 Description
2.2.1 1. Natural Order Hypothesis

Annotations:

  • "Rules of language acquired in predictable order"
2.2.2 2. Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis

Annotations:

  • "Acquisition is using language for real communication"
  • "Learning is knowing about language"
2.2.3 3. Monitor Hypothesis

Annotations:

  • "conscious learning... is used as a monitor or editor"
2.2.4 4. Input Hypothesis

Annotations:

  • "we acquire language by receiving comprehensible input"
2.2.5 5. Affective Filter Hypothesis

Annotations:

  • "mental blocks/affective filters prevent input comprehensibility"
2.2.6 Summary of Monitor Model

Annotations:

  • Language instruction just slightly above the student's comprehensible input is useful.
  • Speaking cannot be taught directly; it is a result of internalizing comprehensible input.
3 Automaticity
3.1 Theorists
3.1.1 John R. Anderson
3.1.2 Robert DeKeyser
3.2 Description
3.2.1 Complex cognitive skills follow acquisition pattern

Annotations:

  • Graduated process of procedurization
3.2.2 Repeated practice leads to automaticity

Annotations:

  • Automaticity is performing skill without conscious control
3.2.3 Increasingly efficient process

Annotations:

  • Progression from "controlled" processes to "automatic" ones
3.2.4 Research continues to support

Annotations:

  • e.g. recent Degner, et al. study of affective connotations
3.2.5 Humans have limited capacity for complex skills

Annotations:

  • Processing sub-components involved in a skill requires more attention resources.
4 Sociocultural Theory
4.1 Theorists
4.1.1 Lev Vygotsky
4.1.1.1 James P. Lantolf
4.2 Description
4.2.1 Sociocultural

Annotations:

  • According to Vygotsky and later theorists, the idea that human minds function according to participation and accommodation of cultural and mediation integrated into social activities
4.2.2 Internalization

Annotations:

  • The process whereby language and other social artifacts become part of a person's mental and psychological processes
4.2.3 Regulation (self, other, or object regulation)

Annotations:

  • Stages of focus where words focus on certain aspects or areas of an individual's environment to shape biological realities into cultural concepts
4.2.4 Zone of Proximal Development

Annotations:

  • Difference between what someone can do alone and what someone can do with mediation
4.2.5 Mediation

Annotations:

  • A psychological theory that argues that humans use higher-level cultural tools such as language, literacy, and logic in a conscious effort to control the biologically-endowed mental processes of the brain
4.2.6 Imitation

Annotations:

  • Cognitive activity with the goal of forming conscious psychological development
5 Competition Model
5.1 Theorists
5.1.1 Elizabeth Bates
5.1.1.1 Brian MacWhinney
5.2 Description
5.2.1 Language acquisition
5.2.2 Sentence Processing

Annotations:

  • Individuals use linguistic cues to get meaning from language, rather than relying on linguistic universals.
5.2.3 Interpretation and communication

Annotations:

  • When aquiring an L2, learners sometimes receive competing cues and must decide with cue(s) is more relevant for determine meaning.
5.2.4 Universal Meaning
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