ELL Language Acquisition Theories

Mind Map by , created about 4 years ago

Five Language Acquisition Theories and how/if these theories can be applied to the classroom

Created by spollock3 about 4 years ago
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ELL Language Acquisition Theories
1 Dr. Jim Cummins
1.1 BICS and CALP
1.1.1 Three aspects of language learning: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills, discreet language skills, and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. Most students come in with fluency in BICS. However, it can take 5-7 years for a native speaker to become proficient in CALPS. Each component has different acquisition skills required to become fluent. There are big gaps in low used vocabulary words and High Frequency Words. Students will learn second language fairly quickly, but will need to focus on CALPS to become proficient. In the classroom, students need exposure to the new language and they need to see the language in print. Students need to authentically see grammar in text. Interactive Read-Alouds focusing on vocabulary and giving students opportunities to use vocabulary words is critical.
2 Noam Chomsky
2.1 Fundamental Interactions
2.1.1 Innate ability to learn language that does not support the behaviorist approach. Children learn language at an early age but they are not mimicking language, they are creating it. Languages only differ in their lexical choices, so students can acquire language because they already know it as part of their biological makeup. This ability to learn language innately is called Language Acquisition Device (LAD) and is acquired by the age of 5.
3 Stephen Krashen
3.1 Comprehensible Input
3.1.1 No fundamental difference in how we learn our first language and subsequent languages. Humans innate ability guides the language learning process. We acquire new language when we understand and can attach meaning. When we understand what is being taught, we learn. The Monitor Model has five components, that occur in a process: Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis, Natural Order Hypothesis, Monitor Hypothesis, Input Hypothesis, and the Affective Filter. Drawing, pointing, using visuals are critical in the classroom. Having students draw pictures, while saying the parts of the picture is important. having pictures with labels around the classroom would also be helpful.
4 Robertson and Ford
4.1 Six Stages
4.1.1 Language acquisition happens in 2 categories: 1. First Language-this happens regardless of home language. Babies begin to babble and imitate sounds around them. 2. Process of learning a new language. The second language learning process has six phases which includes pre-production, early production, speech emergent, beginning fluency, intermediate fluency, and advanced fluency. Starting with students in the pre-production stage, have students listen to read-alouds, use visuals, gesture and point when possible. It is also important to speak slowing and use correct English. As students progress through the stages you can begin having students pair up, using "Turn and Talk. You can also begin to introduce more complex vocabulary words.
5 Judie Haynes
5.1 Five Stages
5.1.1 Distinct stages of second language acquisition: Silent/receptive, Early Production, Speech Emergence, Intermediate Fluency, and Advanced Fluency. The key to learning the second language is consistency and practice. Classroom Teachers should focus on content-rich vocabulary instruction, using pictures, listening activities, use books with predictable text, and ask yes or no questions.