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Spoken English


Spoken English Glossary Mind Map
Mind Map by graciellaviona, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by graciellaviona over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Spoken English
  1. Grice's Maxims
    1. Quality
      1. be truthful
      2. Quantity
        1. don't say too much or little
        2. Relevance
          1. keep to the point
          2. Manner
            1. clear? orderly way?
          3. formal and informal
            1. hedge terms
              1. words & phrases which soften the force of smth is said
                1. rhetorical devices
                  1. to evoke an emotional response in the audience
                    1. hyperbole, personification, metaphor
                  2. repetitions
                    1. to emphasis
                      1. scripted
                      2. to buy time
                        1. unscripted/ spontaneous
                      3. tag question
                        1. turning a declarative sentence into a question
                          1. it's a bit expensive isn't it?
                        2. colluqual idiom
                          1. phrases that don't serve any function
                            1. As far as I can see, the thing is
                        3. tone/register
                          1. formal
                            1. scripted speech
                              1. pragmatic
                                1. an approach that focus more on contexts and purposes of people talking to each other rather than structures
                                2. prosodic features
                                  1. features to mark out key meanings in a message
                                    1. rhythm, pitch, tempo, stress and intonations
                                  2. paralinguistic features
                                    1. body language
                                      1. to add meaning o the speaker's message beyond spoken words
                                      2. non-verbal
                                        1. laughter
                                    2. courtesy terms
                                      1. please, thank you
                                    3. informal
                                      1. unscripted speech/ spontaneous
                                        1. fillers
                                          1. no conversational meaning usually to buy time to think
                                            1. um, ah, er
                                          2. phatic talk
                                            1. conversational utterances that have no concrete puposes
                                              1. to maintain relationship
                                                1. small talk
                                                  1. how are you?/ fine; cold isn't it/freezing
                                            2. pace/ timing
                                              1. non-fluency features
                                                1. overlaps, interruptions, hesitations, pauses
                                              2. conversational speech
                                                1. in- slang or in-jokes, daily convo.
                                                2. contractions
                                                  1. can't and she'll instead of cannot and she will
                                                  2. unfinished sentences
                                                    1. overlaps
                                                      1. topic shifts
                                                      2. back-channel features
                                                        1. give feedback to show conversation is being followed or understood
                                                          1. I know, yeah, really
                                                    2. dialect
                                                      1. distinctive grammar and vocabulary (regional)
                                                      2. idiolect
                                                        1. distinctive accent by individual
                                                        2. groups of words
                                                          1. lexicon
                                                            1. same field of study
                                                              1. tyre, oil, engine
                                                            2. jargon
                                                              1. similar profession or group
                                                                1. medical jargon
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