Journalism History

Joe  Cruz
Mind Map by Joe Cruz, updated more than 1 year ago
Joe  Cruz
Created by Joe Cruz over 6 years ago
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Journalism Midterm History

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Journalism History
  1. First Great Revolution: Scribal
    1. Plato (427 - 347) For culture to prosper we need to be more literal. Wanted to kill the poets in order to fix what was happening. Fix things by consuming information in a linear function to move forward. Talk - Read - Write
    2. Second Great Revolution: Mass Communication
      1. Johannes Guttenberg invented the moving printing press. Movable type was a stamp that could print pages. People were able to think for themselves. Martin Luther didn't agree with church and used press to show public.
      2. Third Great Revolution: Morse Code
        1. 1844 - Morse Code - brought US to the electronic age. Another realm to share news. Non-Linear Fashion means retention and thinking are different. Medium is the message means the way we receive information effects the info we receive. McLuhan and Plato would be concerned with how we consume media today. They argue for sequential rather than haphazard.
        2. First Act of Journalism
          1. 1636 - Benjamin Harris - Harvard; Publik Occurrences in Boston and wrote about Thanksgiving. First journalist to publish without permission/ First act of censorship.
            1. Name sources
              1. Tell the Truth
                1. Fix/publish corrections
              2. New England Current
                1. 1721 - James Franklin created reporting on the Government. He was worried about a theocratic government. He was jailed for publishing without permission critiques about British Navy so his brother, Benjamin Franklin took over as "Silence Do Good"
                2. Peter Zenger and Libel
                  1. Zenger was the publisher for New York Journal, Governor was charged with seditious libel. Zenger hires Andrew Hamilton as his lawyer, Hamilton argues that if telling the truth is libel, then we live in a bad world. Truth shall set us free.
                    1. Truth is defense for Libel.
                      1. First time spirit of law is interpreted rather than letter.
                    2. Dark Ages of Journalism
                      1. Washington and Adams were Federalists, Jefferson was an Anti-Federalist (meaning he wanted less central government, more states' rights) As President, Jefferson uses laws against his enemies.
                        1. Alien and Sedition acts mean States are left to define truth and libel individually. Example = NY state has Gross Negligence Test to prove that journalists acted with Actual Malice.
                      2. Press Pool/ Yellow Journalism
                        1. NY Harbors in 1800s - Competing newspapers built bigger ships to spread more news to everyone. This large press pool turns into Associated Press.
                          1. People escaping economic prosecution rather than religious.
                            1. Because more people were literate and had access to Newspapers, politics were LESS important than Free Living.
                              1. More consumpition by the masses = Yellow Journalism.
                                1. Benjamin Day = Yellow Journalism. Based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration. Ex = Police blotter.
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