Plato (427 - 347) For
culture to prosper we
need to be more literal.
Wanted to kill the poets
in order to fix what was
happening. Fix things by
in a linear function to
move forward. Talk -
Read - Write
Second Great Revolution: Mass Communication
Johannes Guttenberg invented the moving
printing press. Movable type was a stamp
that could print pages. People were able to
think for themselves. Martin Luther didn't
agree with church and used press to show
Third Great Revolution: Morse Code
1844 - Morse Code - brought US to
the electronic age. Another realm to
share news. Non-Linear Fashion
means retention and thinking are
different. Medium is the message
means the way we receive
information effects the info we
receive. McLuhan and Plato would
be concerned with how we consume
media today. They argue for
sequential rather than haphazard.
First Act of Journalism
1636 - Benjamin Harris - Harvard;
Publik Occurrences in Boston and
wrote about Thanksgiving. First
journalist to publish without
permission/ First act of censorship.
Tell the Truth
New England Current
1721 - James Franklin created reporting on
the Government. He was worried about a
theocratic government. He was jailed for
publishing without permission critiques about
British Navy so his brother, Benjamin Franklin
took over as "Silence Do Good"
Zenger was the publisher for New York Journal, Governor was charged with seditious libel.
Zenger hires Andrew Hamilton as his lawyer, Hamilton argues that if telling the truth is libel,
then we live in a bad world. Truth shall set us free.
Truth is defense for Libel.
First time spirit of law is interpreted rather than letter.
Dark Ages of Journalism
Washington and Adams were Federalists, Jefferson was an
Anti-Federalist (meaning he wanted less central government, more
states' rights) As President, Jefferson uses laws against his enemies.
Alien and Sedition acts mean States are left to define truth and libel individually. Example
= NY state has Gross Negligence Test to prove that journalists acted with Actual Malice.
Press Pool/ Yellow Journalism
NY Harbors in 1800s - Competing
newspapers built bigger ships to
spread more news to everyone.
This large press pool turns into
rather than religious.
Because more people were
literate and had access to
Newspapers, politics were LESS
important than Free Living.
More consumpition by the masses = Yellow Journalism.
Benjamin Day = Yellow Journalism.
Based upon sensationalism and
crude exaggeration. Ex = Police