Chapter 3: Genetics and Heredity, Principles of Hereditary Transmission

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Chapter 3: Genetics and Heredity, Principles of Hereditary Transmission
  1. Genotype: Total endowment inherited by an individual
    1. Phenotype: Set of traits a person actually displays, resulting from a combination of the person’s genotype (potential) and life experiences that modify that potentia
      1. A person's characteristics are created by their genotype and their individual experiences
      2. Gregor Mendel
        1. Hereditary characteristics are determined by pairs of particles called factors
          1. Factors later was termed genes
            1. Genes: the specialized sequences of molecules that form the genotype
              1. Genes are made up of nucleotides
                1. Nucleotides: Repeating basic building block of DNA consisting of nitrogen-based molecules of adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine
                  1. The nucleotides pair together to create DNA
                    1. DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid: Blueprint for genetic inheritance
              2. Information provided by genes are not always the same
                1. Alleles: Alternate form of a specific gene, provides a genetic basis for many individual differences
            2. Genes are transmitted from parents to children by gametes or sex cells
              1. Gametes: Sperm cell in males, egg cell in females
              2. Chromosomes were discovered around the same time Mendel research was published
                1. Chromosomes: Threadlike structure of DNA, located in the nucleus of cells, which forms a collection of genes
                  1. A karyotype: the pictorial representation of an individual's chromosomes
                    1. Looking at a karyotype one can see the autosomes and the X & Y chromosomes (sex cells)
                      1. Autosomes: One of twenty-two pairs of homologous chromosomes
                        1. X chromosomes: Larger of the two chromosomes, normally females have two and males only one
                          1. Y chromosomes: Smaller of the two chromosomes, males have one and females have none
                      2. Watson and Crick proposed the way genes duplicate and documented the 46 chromosomes in the human body which led to the mapping of human genome
                        1. Human genome: Entire inventory of nucleotide base pairs that compose the genes and chromosomes of humans
                    2. Cell division and Chromosome Duplication
                      1. We were created by the uniting of the sperm cell (23 chromosomes) and the egg (23 chromosomes) to create the zygote
                        1. Zygote: fertilized egg cell
                          1. From then on the cells begin to divide through mitosis and meiosis
                            1. Mitosis: Process of cell division that takes place in most cells of the human body and results in a full complement of identical material in the 46 chromosomes in each cell
                              1. Meiosis: Process of cell division that forms the gametes; normally results in 23 chromosomes in each human egg and sperm cell rather than the full complement of 46
                          2. Gene Expression
                            1. If both parents give the child the same gene its homozygous but if both are different then they are heterozygous or both could be observed leading it to be codominance
                              1. Homozygous: Genotype in which two alleles of a gene are identical, have the same effect of a trait
                                1. Heterozygous: Genotype in which two alleles of a gene are different
                                  1. Codominance: Condition in which individual, unblended characteristics of two alleles are reflected in the phenotype.
                                    1. Some genes can affect others leading it to be different than detected
                                      1. Polygenic: Phenotypic characteristic influenced by two or more genes
                                    2. Genomic imprinting:Instances of genetic transmission in which the expression of a gene is determined by whether the particular allelic form has been inherited from the mother or the father
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