FATS AND OILS

Gracie DeBord
Mind Map by Gracie DeBord, updated more than 1 year ago
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FATS AND OILS
1 Trans fats don't go rancid, more stable during deep frying and they can change textures of foods like no other fat
2 Fats protect internal organs from shock and injury, insulate the body, and promote healthy skin.
2.1 Fats provide 9 calories per gram.
3 Fat: a nutrient that is essential for body energy, insulation, and protection.
4 Oils: fats that are liquid at room temperature
4.1 Oils come from different plants and from fish
4.2 Vegetable Oils: oils extracted from plant sources
4.2.1 Vegetable ShorteningsL a blend of oils hydrogenated to become a solid
5 Lipids: a family of chemical compounds, which include fats and oils
6 Cholesterol: a fat-like substance made of glucose or saturated fat
6.1 Fat-like substance found in our blood, found in animal tissue but never in plants, it;s essential for many body processes, and it produces hormones and bile acids
6.1.1 Too much cholesterol is linked to heart disease and obesity
6.2 Two types:
6.2.1 HDL Cholesterol: "High Density Lipoprotein", "good" kind of cholesterol. and moves excess cholesterol from the blood to the liver
6.2.2 LDL Cholesterol: "Low Density Lipoprotein", "bad" kind of cholesterol, and takes the cholesterol from the liver to the blood when it is needed
6.2.2.1 Too much LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream means buildup in the arteries and increased chance of heart attack
7 Fat is a good source of back-up energy, should be secondary to carbohydrates, and fats are the most concentrated source of energy
8 Fat functions: supplies heat, carries vitamin A, D, E, K, adds flavor to food, satisfies hunger, protects organs from shock and injury, and promotes healthy skin
9 Fat soluble vitamins (ADEK) can only dissolve in fat
9.1 Only 4 vitamins are fat-soluble, which means they can only move around in your bloodstream and help you with the assistance of fat molcules
10 Fat keeps you from being hungry because it remains in the body longer than other foods and gives you a “full” feeling.
11 Fatty acids: the chemical chains that make up fats
11.1 Fatty acids with only single bonds are called saturated.
11.1.1 Saturated Fatty Acids: Fats that usually come from animal sources, solid at room temperature
11.2 Fatty acids with one or more double bonds are called unsaturated.
11.2.1 Polyunsaturated
11.2.1.1 Found in veggies, fish, and are semi-liquid at room temperature
11.2.1.2 “healthy” fats that help lower LDL “bad” cholesterol and contain essential fatty acids
11.2.2 Monosaturated
11.2.2.1 Monosaturated: semi-solid or liquid at room temperature
11.2.2.2 “Good or healthy” fats because they can lower your LDL “bad” cholesterol
11.3 The body needs fatty acids to transport other molecules such as fat-soluble vitamins (ADEK)
12 Hydrogenation: chemical process making liquid fat a solid fat
13 Butter: fat extracted from milk and churned into a solid
14 Margarine: fat extracted from milk and churned into a solid
15 Lard: extracted from animal fats
16 Rancid: Fats that have begun to decompose
17 Trans Fat: unsaturated fat molecule chemically changed to be a solid fat
17.1 Lasts longer on the shelves and can cause heart disease
18 Cholesterol and Fatty Acids affect each other:
18.1 Saturated Fats: raise both HDL and LDL cholesterol levels in the blood
18.2 Polyunsaturated Fats: lower both the LDL and HDL cholesterols in the blood
18.3 Monounsaturated: raise the HDL and lower the LDL cholesterol in the blood
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