Learning

Kirsten Sjostrom
Mind Map by Kirsten Sjostrom, updated more than 1 year ago
Kirsten Sjostrom
Created by Kirsten Sjostrom about 6 years ago
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conditioning and learning

Resource summary

Learning
  1. Learning-any relatively durable change in behaviour, attitude, or knowledge that is due to experience.
    1. conditioning-s a theory that the reaction ("response") to an object or event ("stimulus") by a person or animal can be modified by 'learning', or conditioning.
      1. classical conditioning- refers to a form of learning that occurs through the repeated association of 2 or more different stimuli.
        1. How it shapes individuals- learning a new bahaviour via the process of association. So if something happens to you in your life, it can create a new bahviour. Examples: Hating a certain food because it made you sick onve
          1. acquisition-Acquisition is the overall process during which the organism learns to associate 2 events.
            1. extinction-A conditioned stimulus-response association can fade over time or disappear altogether.
              1. spontaneous recovery- Extinction of a CR is not always permanent.
              2. operant conditioning-A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment.
                1. acquisition- refers to the first stages of learning when a response is established
                  1. extinction -can occur if the trained behavior is no longer reinforced or if the type of reinforcement used is no longer rewarding.
                    1. shaping-A procedure in Operant Conditioning in which reinforcers guide behavior closer and closer towards a goal-useful for complex behaviours. Each step toward the goal behaviour is called a “successive approximation”
                  2. observational learning- Learning by observing others.
                    1. mirror neurons-hints at the brain-behavior link for empathy and observational learning.
                  3. generalizaton- the act or process of responding to a stimulus similar to but distinct from the conditioned stimulus.
                    1. discrimination- the ability to perceive and respond to differences among stimuli
                    2. positive reinforcement- Strengthens a response by presenting a stimulus after a response.
                      1. negative reinforcement- Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus.
                        1. punishment- is any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future.
                          1. penalty- punishment imposed for breaking rule
                      2. types of schedules of reinforcement
                        1. Fixed-ratio Schedules- A schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
                          1. Variable-ratio Schedule- A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
                            1. Fixed-interval Schedule-A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
                              1. Variable-Interval Schedule-A schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
                              2. bobo doll expiraments- an expirament on aggression Children watched the model preform aggression on th doll.. Reasearchers thought that seeing other children preform acts of aggression on their doll would drain the viewrs aggresive drive. It increased an attracton to guns even though they were not modeled. Also began using hostile language. Children learn aggression through observational learning.
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