Approaches in Psychology

Emma White
Mind Map by Emma White, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma White
Created by Emma White over 4 years ago
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- psychology Mind Map on Approaches in Psychology, created by Emma White on 12/09/2015.

Resource summary

Approaches in Psychology
1 Behaviourist Approach
1.1 Description
1.1.1 Key Assumptions
1.1.1.1 Behaviour is learnt from experiences
1.1.1.2 Only observable behaviour is measurable scientifically and it is only these behaviours that can be studied
1.1.1.3 It is valid to study the behaviour of animals as they share the same principles of learning (CC&OC)
1.1.1.4 According to the behaviourists we are born as a blank state (tabula rasa) so there is no genetic influence
1.1.2 Key Psychologists
1.1.2.1 Pavlov
1.1.2.1.1 CC
1.1.2.2 Skinner
1.1.2.2.1 OC
1.1.2.3 Bandura
1.1.2.3.1 SLT
1.1.3 Nurture-> learnt from the environment
1.1.4 Behaviour that is learnt can be unlearnt
1.1.5 Adopts a scientific approach - observation and measurement
2 Cognitive Approach
2.1 Description
2.1.1 Visual, Shallow processing, Requires little effort
2.1.2 Thought processes proceed all behaviour
2.1.3 Atkinson & Shiffrin
2.1.3.1 INPUT: See your friend across the road, wave at them, see no response from their processing, assume they did not see you OUTPUT ask them about it later
2.1.4 Computer Analogy
2.1.4.1 The mind works like a computer in that it has an input from our senses, which it then processes and produces an output such as language or specific behaviour
2.1.5 Memory, Language etc.
2.1.6 Schema
2.1.6.1 Knowledge is stored in blocks
2.2 Evaluation
2.2.1 Weaknesses
2.2.2 Strengths
2.3 High Order Evaluation
3 Biological Model
3.1 Description
3.1.1 Key Assumptions
3.1.1.1 Everything psychological is at first biological& to understand human behaviour we must look at biological structures and processes within the body such as genes, nervous system and neurochemistry
3.1.1.2 Assumes all thoughts, feelings and behaviour have an underlying physical basis
3.1.1.3 Model is contract to COGNITIVE
3.1.2 Genotype & Phenotype
3.1.2.1 Genotype=persons ACTUAL genetic makeup. It has written genetic code within the DNA. Everyone's is different apart from twins
3.1.2.2 Phenotype=how genes are EXPRESSED through either physical, behavioural and psychological characteristics
3.1.2.3 HYDE
3.1.2.3.1 Differences in genotype and phenotype
3.1.2.3.2 Environmental experiment
3.1.3 Genetic Inheritance
3.1.3.1 Behaviour genetics study behaviour characteristics and says they are inherited
3.1.3.2 50% or genetics are from the mother and 50% are the fathers
3.1.3.3 Genes=blueprint of characterisation, how they are expressed depends on the complex inheritance
3.1.3.4 Monozygotic (I) Twins share 100% of genetics whereas dizygotic (non-I) twins share 50% like siblings
3.1.3.5 GOTTESMAN AND SHIELD
3.1.3.5.1 Twin Study
3.1.4 Biological Structure
3.1.4.1 Nervous System
3.1.4.1.1 CNS (brain and spinal cord) + PNS (somatic and autonomic nervous system)
3.1.4.2 CNS
3.1.4.2.1 Transfers messages to and from the environment
3.1.4.3 PNS
3.1.4.3.1 Sends and receives information to the CNS
3.1.5 Evolutionary Theory
3.2 Evaluation
3.2.1 Strengths
3.2.2 Weaknesses
3.3 High Order Evaluation
4 Behaviourist Approach
4.1 High Order Evaluation
4.1.1 Ethical and Practical Issues in Animal Experiment
4.1.2 Environmental Determinism
4.2 Evaluation
4.2.1 Scientific Credibility
4.2.1.1 Able to bring the language and methods of natural sceicnes into psychology by focusing on the measurement of observation behaviour within highly controlled lab settings.
4.2.1.2 Objectivity and replication, behaviourism was influential in the development of psychology as a scientific discipline - greater credibility and status
4.2.2 Mechanistic View of Behaviour
4.2.2.1 Animals and humans=passive and machine-like responders to the environment, with little or no conscious insight into their behaviour.
4.2.2.2 SLT and COGNITIVE approach have emphasised importance of mental events during learning
4.2.2.2.1 These processes, which mediate between the stimulus and response, suggest that people may play more of a role
4.2.3 Real Life Application
4.2.3.1 Token Economy Systems and Phobias
4.2.3.1.1 Principles of conditioning applied to a broad range of real-world behaviours and problems
4.2.3.1.1.1 Operant Conditioning - in prisons. Where prisoners who are well behaved receive a reward-'token economy' in order to exchange a privlage
4.2.3.1.1.2 Classical Conditioning - applied to treatment of phobias - the patient does not have to think of their phobia
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