How and why was Hitler able to become Chancellor in January 1933

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Mind Map by mollymalone98, updated more than 1 year ago
mollymalone98
Created by mollymalone98 about 6 years ago
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GCSE History (Hitler) Mind Map on How and why was Hitler able to become Chancellor in January 1933, created by mollymalone98 on 12/15/2013.
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How and why was Hitler able to become Chancellor in January 1933
1 Long-term Bitterness
1.1 Deep anger about the WW1 armistic, the Treaty of Versailles and the 1923 economic meltdown created an underlying bitterness and lack of confidence in the German people
1.1.1 Germans hated their loss of territory - they lost 10% of their land meaning thousands of Germans were displaced, even though other nations had been allowed "self determination".
1.1.1.1 Hitler spoke of the policy of "lebensraum" in Mein Kampf
1.1.2 the Treaty of Versailles, presented on 7th May 1919, was a "diktat" (imposed settlement). The Germans had no say in the decision-making
1.1.2.1 Count Brockdorff said "those who sign this treaty will sign the death of many millions of German men,women and children"
1.1.2.1.1 Hitler promised to rip up the treaty
1.1.3 Their unity with Austria was banned
1.1.3.1 Hitler's ultimate goal was anschluss (unity with Austria)
1.1.4 lack of confidence after being humiliated by the "backstab" of the 11/11 armistice as they didn't think they'd lost, and the 231 war-guilt clause
1.1.4.1 Hitler spoke of a "greater germany" and the Aryan race being superior, blaming minorities for the economic difficulty and WW1 defeat.
2 Ineffective Constitution
2.1 The constitution gave the President, the states and the army too much power
2.1.1 Article 48 - President sole power in "times of emergency"
2.1.1.1 Hitler used this to get rid of the government altogether in 1933
2.2 Proportional representation meant the Reichtag was divided into 28 parties thus no decisions could be made.
2.2.1 Hitler used this to get more and more seats
2.3 Extremist groups trying to destroy it
2.3.1 1919, 50 000 spartacists in a communist uprising led by Rosa Lucmburg and Karl Leibkneckt
2.3.2 Kapp Putsch 1920, Dr Wolfgang Kapp took over Berlin trying to overthrow the government, only ended when workers went on strike
2.3.2.1 Not stopped by the army or Freikorps led by General Hans von Seeckt, thus the army was not fully under government control
2.4 French Invasion of the Ruhr 1923 as The Weimar could not repay the reparations
2.4.1 rioting and general strike
2.4.2 hyperinflation
2.4.2.1 government printed money, thus the Mark lost value almost completely
2.4.3 Nazi Putsch in Munich 1923
2.5 Many officials and judges were right-wing and wanted to destroy the Weimar. Hitler only went to prison for 9 months in a relatively nice prison for treason.
2.6 increased Hitler's credibility
3 Money
3.1 Wealthy industrialists like Henry Ford financially supported the Nazis as they thought they could prevent communism.
3.1.1 This gave Hitler the money to run his propaganda and election campaigns.
3.1.2 Hjalmar Schacht - head of Reichsbank - organised fund-raising parties for Hitler.
3.1.2.1 even influencial government characters supported him
3.2 Sold 80 million Mein Kampf = profit
4 Propaganda
4.1 Hitler devised the swatstika
4.2 The party published its own newspaper "Der Sturmer" to put forward their ideas
4.3 Joseph Goebbels was Hitler's minister of propaganda from 1926
4.3.1 Goebbels ran a "Hitler over Germany" campaign, which involved flying Hitler from one mass rally to the next. This was reinforced by a poster campaign strong in emotional appeal, which portrayed Hitler as a strong leader who would "save" Germany
4.4 Mein Kampf became a national bible selling 80 million
5 Programme
5.1 MANIFESTO 1920, the Nazis set out their "National Socialist" beliefs in their 25 point programme, which appealed to a large range of people - "all things to all men"
5.1.1 Nationalists
5.1.1.1 13) Nationalisation of public industries (water/electricity)
5.1.1.2 25) strong central government with unlimited authority
5.1.2 Socialists
5.1.2.1 14) Large companies must share their profits
5.1.2.2 7) citizens are entitled to a job and a decent standard of living
5.1.3 Workers
5.1.3.1 9) All citizens have equal rights and duties
5.1.3.2 20) improved education for all so better prepared for work
5.1.4 Middle class
5.1.4.1 11) All payments to unemployed people should end
5.1.4.2 16) Creation of a healthy and conserved middle class
6 Attacks on other parties
6.1 The Stormtroopers (SA) attacked Jews, communists or any opposition in street fights called ZusammenstoBe ('clashes')
6.1.1 people supported Hitler simply because they were afraid
6.1.2 Right-wing judges didn't arrest them
6.1.3 Attacks on communists gained support from rich industrialists
6.2 The SA - co-founded with Ernest Roehm - were half a million by 1933, with the motto "All opposition must be stamped into the ground".
6.3 Hitler publically complained about the caos on the streets to undermine the Weimar and promise Nazism would bring peace and order
7 Personal Qualities
7.1 Hitler was a brilliant orator - his eyes had a peculiar effect on people
7.1.1 he used his orating skill to evoke sympathy from the judges to reduce his prison sentence from 5 years to 9 months
7.2 very organised and a good politician
7.3 He was a very unstable man who believed he had been called by God to become dictator over Germany. His drive was very persuasive to people.
7.4 his personality was manipulated by his personal photographer "Hoffman"
8 Economic Depression
8.1 The Wall Street Crash 1929 led to huge unemployment as American called on its loans to Germany, throwing Germany also into Depression
8.1.1 Unemployment hit 6 million in 1932
8.1.1.1 people went looking for extreme solutions, such as Nazism who promised help for employees, farmers and shopkeepers.
8.1.1.1.1 The number of Reichstag seats rose from only 12 in 1928, to 230 in July 1932.
8.1.2 Heinrich Bruning of the Catholic Centre Party became chancellor in 1930.
8.1.2.1 imposed high taxes causing problems to business
8.1.2.2 reduced benefits - made Depression worse
9 Recruited by Hindenburg
9.1 November 1932 - Nazi failed to get majority. Votes fell from 230 to 196.
9.2 Bruning forced to resign 1932 - Franz von Papen elected but could not get enough support from the Reichstag
9.2.1 Hindenburg and von Papen were governing under Article 48
9.2.1.1 Offered Hitler co-chancellor. He refused
9.2.1.2 Von Papen's government collapsed as Kurt von Schleicher (army General) told him the army reused to support him.
9.2.1.2.1 December 1932 - Von Schliecher made Chancellor. But he failed to get Reichstag support.
9.2.1.2.1.1 So, 30th January 1933, Hindenburg ASKED Hitler to become Chancellor of Germany
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