Fleas

elenifraser
Mind Map by elenifraser, updated more than 1 year ago
elenifraser
Created by elenifraser about 4 years ago
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Description

Undergraduate Veterinary Medicine (Parasitology) Mind Map on Fleas, created by elenifraser on 02/19/2016.
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Resource summary

Fleas
1 Key Species
1.1 Ctenocephalides felis

Annotations:

  • This is REALLY COMMON!  Found on dogs, humans etc.
1.1.1 Cat Flea
1.1.2 Life Cycle

Annotations:

  • More details on life cycle in book. 
1.1.2.1 Adult
1.1.2.1.1 Egg
1.1.2.1.1.1 Larvae
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Cocoon

Annotations:

  • Sticky silken cocoon that debris sticks to 0.5cm long
1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Adult
1.1.2.1.1.1.2 This stage can last between 1 & several weeks.
1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1 Yellowish
1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 2-5mm
1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.2 Maggot like
1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.3 Bristley
1.1.2.1.1.1.2.2 Chitinous mouthparts
1.1.2.1.1.1.2.3 Anal struts

Annotations:

  • Used with the bristles for vigorous motility.
1.1.2.1.1.1.2.4 Negatively phototropic so hide in carpets / under furniture

Annotations:

  • They feed on flea dirt Grow to 5mm - 2 moults In 1-7 weeks - temperature dependent. Susceptible to dessication. 
1.1.2.1.1.2 Starts laying after 1-2 days
1.1.2.1.1.2.1 Eggs drop to the ground within a few hours as they're not sticky
1.1.2.1.1.2.2 What does pelage mean?
1.1.2.1.1.2.2.1 Fur / feathers
1.1.2.2 Uses changes in light intensity, warmth & CO2 to locate hosts
1.1.2.2.1 Almost permanent!
1.1.2.2.2 Transfer: mostly adult unfed fleas from the environment
1.1.2.2.2.1 Som transfer due to close contact with another host animal
1.1.2.3 Life span = 7-10 days dependant on grooming habits
1.2 Ctenocephalides canis

Annotations:

  • Relatively uncommon
1.2.1 Dog Flea
1.3 Ceratophyllus gallinae

Annotations:

  • Common on poultry but can also be found on wild birds, pets & humans.
1.3.1 Poultry Flea
1.4 Pulex irritans

Annotations:

  • Uncommon / rare
1.4.1 Human Flea
1.5 Spilopsyllus

Annotations:

  • Wildlife flea but especially on rabbits. Also found on pets.
1.5.1 Rabbit flea
2 General features
2.1 Wingless insects
2.2 Laterally flattened

Annotations:

  • WHY? So that they can fit between hairs!
2.3 ADULTS: Blood sucking ectoparasites
2.4 Why are they a problem?

Annotations:

  • Normally a problem when there are large numbers of them!
2.4.1 Pruritis
2.4.2 Anaemia
2.4.3 Annoying!
2.4.4 Allergies to flea saliva
2.4.4.1 Just a few bites can trigger a reaction
2.4.5 Intermediate hosts for tapeworm

Annotations:

  • Dipylidium
2.5 Flea dirt = faeces
3 Identification

Annotations:

  • Notes in book are better!
3.1 Aided by rows of chitinous spines
3.1.1 COMBS / CTENIDIA
3.1.1.1 Chin combs
3.1.1.1.1 Genal
3.1.1.2 Back of head combs
3.1.1.2.1 Pronotal
3.2 General appearanace -->

Annotations:

  • 2-4 mm Small Dark brown Long hind legs Laterally compressed
3.3 Key differences between cat & dog fleas
3.3.1 C. canis
3.3.1.1 Streamlined head
3.3.1.2 1st two genal spines are different sizes
3.3.2 C. felis
3.3.2.1 Streamlined head
3.3.2.2 1st 2 genal spines = same size
4 Hormonal control of egg & larval development
4.1 Insect juvenile hormone
4.1.1 Controls embyonic development & maintains juvenile characters.
4.2 Moulting hormone (ecdysone)
4.2.1 Initiates moulting & pupation
4.3 Insect growth regulators (IGRs)
4.3.1 Chemicals that disrupt insect development
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