ESL Approaches and Methodologies

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M S
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Description

Herrera, Socorro Guadalupe., and Kevin G. Murry. Mastering ESL and Bilingual Methods: Differentiated Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students. Second ed. Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon, 2011. Print. Module 7 for UAB's EESL 630

Resource summary

ESL Approaches and Methodologies
  1. Grammatical Approach
    1. Explanation
      1. HISTORICAL BASIS
        1. 19th Century Classical Instruction: Greek and Latin
          1. Replaced by Subsequent Approaches
          2. CHARACTERISTICS
            1. Teacher-centered
              1. Emphasis: L2 Rules & Structure
              2. PHILOSOPHY
                1. Learning Stages: Predictable
                  1. Behaviorist Perspective
                    1. Language Learning: Deductive, Structure-based
                  2. Methods
                    1. GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION
                      1. Focus: Reading, Writing, Grammar
                        1. Lacks: L2 Oral Development
                          1. Holistically-taught Grammar Rules
                            1. Accuracy, Not Meaning
                              1. Examples
                                1. Vocabulary Memorization
                                  1. Text Translation
                              2. DIRECT
                                1. Focus: Total Immersion in L2
                                  1. Lacks: L1 Classroom Use
                                    1. Open-ended Responses to Content
                                      1. Use of Realia
                                        1. Examples
                                          1. Drill and Practice
                                            1. Rote Memorization
                                        2. AUDIOLINGUAL
                                          1. Focus: Error Correction, Drills, Repetition
                                            1. Lacks: Extensive L1 Support
                                              1. Sequenced Grammar Structures
                                                1. Consistent Feedback
                                                  1. Examples
                                                    1. Mnemonics
                                                      1. Repetition
                                                        1. Kinetics
                                                          1. Dialogue Memorization
                                                    2. Communicative Approach
                                                      1. Explanation
                                                        1. HISTORICAL BASIS
                                                          1. 1960s-70s: Response to Grammatical Approach
                                                            1. Instruction: Communication and Social Interaction
                                                            2. CHARACTERISTICS
                                                              1. Student-centered
                                                                1. Emphasis: Meaningful SLA
                                                                2. PHILOSOPHY
                                                                  1. Social Constructivist Perspective
                                                                    1. Language Learning: Inductive, Meaning-based
                                                                      1. Learning Stages: Varies on Interaction
                                                                    2. Methods
                                                                      1. SILENT WAY
                                                                        1. Focus: Teacher Modeling and Reinforcement
                                                                          1. Lacks: Content-based Learning
                                                                            1. Witness, Describe in L2
                                                                                1. Examples
                                                                                  1. Pronunciation
                                                                                    1. Word Flow
                                                                                2. NATURAL WAY
                                                                                  1. Focus: Comprehensible Input
                                                                                    1. Lacks: Error Correction, Content Base
                                                                                      1. Embraces ELLs' L1
                                                                                          1. Examples
                                                                                            1. Initial Oral Language Production
                                                                                              1. Silent Period
                                                                                          2. SUGGESTOPEDIA
                                                                                            1. Focus: Relaxed Learning Environment
                                                                                              1. Lacks: Error Correction, Content Base
                                                                                                1. Explanations in L1
                                                                                                    1. Examples
                                                                                                      1. Background Music
                                                                                                        1. Visual Aids
                                                                                                          1. Conversation, Retelling, Role Play
                                                                                                      2. INTEGRATED CONTENT-BASED
                                                                                                        1. Focus: L2 Development
                                                                                                          1. Grade-level Instructors Collaborate
                                                                                                            1. Contemporary Method
                                                                                                                1. Examples
                                                                                                                  1. Thematic Units
                                                                                                                    1. Manipulatives
                                                                                                                      1. Heterogeneous Groups
                                                                                                                        1. ICB Lesson
                                                                                                                          1. Planning
                                                                                                                            1. Select Theme
                                                                                                                              1. Choose Relevant Topics
                                                                                                                                1. Create Objectives
                                                                                                                                  1. Gather Materials
                                                                                                                                    1. Arrange Environment
                                                                                                                                    2. Instruction
                                                                                                                                      1. Preteach Vocabulary
                                                                                                                                        1. Build Background
                                                                                                                                          1. Collaborative Learning
                                                                                                                                            1. Integrate Literacy
                                                                                                                                              1. Engage ELLs
                                                                                                                                                1. Graphic Organizers
                                                                                                                                                  1. Learning Centers
                                                                                                                                                  2. Assessment
                                                                                                                                                    1. Formative Assessment
                                                                                                                                                      1. Summative Assessment
                                                                                                                                              2. SHELTERED INSTRUCTION
                                                                                                                                                1. Focus: Grade-level Modified Curriculum
                                                                                                                                                  1. Scaffolded Instruction
                                                                                                                                                    1. Visuals for Meaningful Learning
                                                                                                                                                        1. Examples
                                                                                                                                                          1. Guarded Vocabulary
                                                                                                                                                            1. Cooperative Learning
                                                                                                                                                              1. SIOP Lesson
                                                                                                                                                                1. Instruction
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Building Background
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Comprehensible Input
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Strategies
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Interaction
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Practice & Application
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Lesson Delivery
                                                                                                                                                                            2. Preparation: Content & Language Objectives, Materials
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Review & Assessment
                                                                                                                                                                              2. Hands-on Activities
                                                                                                                                                                                1. SDAIE
                                                                                                                                                                          2. Cognitive Approach
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Explanation
                                                                                                                                                                              1. HISTORICAL BASIS
                                                                                                                                                                                1. 1980s-90s: Cognitive Research-Based
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Instruction: Learning Functions and Memory
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Learner-centered
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Emphasis: Explicit Learning Strategy Instruction
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Metacognitive
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Cognitive
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Social/Affective
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Target Content/Language Objectives
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. PHILOSOPHY
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Cognitivist Perspective
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Learning Stages: Staged, Environment-based
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Language Learning: Inductive, Meaning-based
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Skills Transfer
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Methods
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. CALLA
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Focus: Build on Prior Knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. L1 and L2 CALP Development
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Developmentally Appropriate Level
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Examples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. CALLA Lesson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Preparation: Objectives & Standards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Presentation: Scaffolded Instruction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Practice: Collaborative Student Groups
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Evaluation: Student Reflections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Expansion: Synthesize Knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Cooperative Learning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. KWL Chart
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Word Wall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Discourse/Questioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. Herrera, Socorro Guadalupe., and Kevin G. Murry. Mastering ESL and Bilingual Methods: Differentiated Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students. Second ed. Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon, 2011. Print.
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