A2 PE Psychology- Individual aspects of performance

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(PE) Mind Map on A2 PE Psychology- Individual aspects of performance, created by sophielee0909 on 01/21/2014.

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Created by sophielee0909 over 5 years ago
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A2 PE Psychology- Individual aspects of performance
1 PERSONALITY- unique patterns of behaviour- effect quality of performance & participation
1.1 TRAIT PERSPECTIVE
1.1.1 all behaviour innate & genetically programmed
1.1.2 traits stable, enduring & consistent
1.1.3 Trait theory- Behaviour=Function of personality
1.1.4 people born with established personality characteristics
1.1.5 trait-single characteristic- instinct causing predicted behaviour
1.1.6 DRAWBACKS- states behaviour is always predictable, does not take into account people adapt behaviour in response to particular situations and differing environments that shape personality
1.1.7 2 theories of trait perspective- *Personality types-(Eysenck & Cattell) *Narrow band theory-type A & B (Girdano)
1.1.7.1 Personality Types-(Eysenck)
1.1.7.1.1 4 primary personality traits
1.1.7.1.1.1 Extrovert
1.1.7.1.1.1.1 affiliates well to other people,outgoing & socialble, slowly aroused, low RAS sensitivity
1.1.7.1.1.2 Introvert
1.1.7.1.1.2.1 shy & reserved,prefers isolation, aroused quickly, high RAS sensitivity
1.1.7.1.1.3 Neurotic
1.1.7.1.1.3.1 extreme & unpredictable emotions-mood swings, moods unreliable, high degrees of stress, secovery from stress slow
1.1.7.1.1.4 stable
1.1.7.1.1.4.1 predictable emotions and moods, do not experience intense stress, recovery from stress rapid
1.1.7.1.2 differences in RAS-(Reticualar Activating System)
1.1.7.1.2.1 Introverts-more easily aroused- more sensitive RAS - greater likelihood of becoming over-aroused
1.1.7.1.2.1.1 arousal-physical and mental state of preparedness
1.1.7.2 Narrow band theory
1.1.7.2.1 2 distinct personality types
1.1.7.2.1.1 Type A
1.1.7.2.1.1.1 Highly competitive, works fast, strong desire to succeed, likes control, prone to stress
1.1.7.2.1.2 Type B
1.1.7.2.1.2.1 Non-competitive, works slowly, lack desire to succeed, does not enjoy control, less prone to stress
1.2 SOCIAL LEARNING PERSPECTIVE- (Bandura)
1.2.1 all behaviour learned therefore personality is not genetically determined
1.2.2 2 processes involved in social learning
1.2.2.1 behavior of others imitated through observation
1.2.2.2 new behaviour acquired after observation- only when endorsed through social reinforcement
1.2.3 social learning theory- Behaviour= function of environment
1.2.4 conditions that support social learning
1.2.4.1 when observer wants to adopt norms & values of new culture-e.g joining new team
1.2.4.2 when observed behaviour is demonstrated by significant other- role model
1.2.4.3 role model is powerful and authoritative
1.2.4.4 observer and role model are same gender
1.3 INTERACTIONIST APPROACH
1.3.1 based on work of hollander-1967
1.3.2 combines trait and social learning perspectives
1.3.2.1 personality modified & behaviour formed when genetically inherited traits are triggered by environmental circumstance
1.3.3 3 levels that interact to form personality
1.3.3.1 Psychological core- most internal, true self
1.3.3.2 Typical responses-changeable, learned behaviours. become modified as person responds to environment
1.3.3.3 Role related behaviour- most external- dynamic & changeable
1.3.4 Interaction theory- Behaviour=Function of personality x Environment
1.3.5 supports claim- typical responses emerge with changing environmental situations
1.3.5.1 behaviour therefore unpreditable
1.3.5.2 approach offers explination why personalities can change in different situations
1.4 EFFECTS OF PERSONALITY PROFILING
1.4.1 personality profiing- classifies individuals into particular personality types
1.4.2 can be used to recommend participation in certain sports
1.4.2.1 type A- linked to stress- altered through exercise
1.4.2.2 Exercise & fitness- increase self esteem
1.4.3 may help coach get to know people & provide motivation for individual to change behaviour & lifestyle
1.4.4 limitations of personality profiling
1.4.4.1 Proof- no link between personality profiling & sports performance proved,
1.4.4.2 Evidence-no evidence of ideal sports personality
1.4.4.3 Subjectivity- results often subjective. conclusions influenced by opinion + not scientifically backed up
1.4.4.4 Invadility- results inaccurate- do not measure what they are meant to
1.4.4.5 modification- may unconciously modify behaviour to match up to profile
1.4.4.6 Reliability- Many profiles calculated using self report questionnaires. may not answer questions accuratley
1.4.4.7 Stereotyping- danger that profiling will streotype a person.
2 ATTITUDES
2.1 INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE AND LIFESTYLES
2.1.1 model of behaviour that is typical response of individual
2.1.2 emotional responses- enduring but unstable (can be changed)
2.1.3 attitude is directed towards an attitude object
2.1.4 negative attitude may result in rejection of physical activity by an individual.
2.1.5 long-standing attitudes may influence behaviour causing individual to be inconsistent in judgement- prejudice (coach pre-judges performer based on opinions)
2.1.5.1 negative prejudice- gender, race, age
2.2 COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
2.2.1 TRIADIC MODEL
2.2.1.1 Attitude comprises of 3 components
2.2.1.2 Cognitive- reflects beliefs & knowledge that individual holds about the attitude object-information component
2.2.1.3 Affective- Feelings/emotional response towards attitude object- emotional component. evaluation of attitude object made
2.2.1.4 Behavioural- how person intends to behave/respond towards attitude object
2.2.2 CHANGING ATTITUDES- COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY
2.2.2.1 by changing one attitude component, person will experience emotional conflict- (basis of dissonance theory)
2.2.2.2 may cause attitude to be changed
2.2.3 ATTITUDES
2.2.3.1 generally poor predictors of behaviour- may not indicate likelihood of desirable lifestyle choice
2.2.3.2 positive attitudes towards health benefits of exercise will not gurantee commitment to exercise programme
2.2.3.3 attitudes more likley to predict behaviour as they become more specific
2.2.3.4 most accurate predictor of behaviour when person makes clear statement of commitment- Behavioural Intention.
2.3 can originate from a no. of sources- experience, socialisation, peer group, media, culture
3 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
3.1 CHARACTERISTICS
3.1.1 NACH
3.1.1.1 High need to achieve, low need to avoid failure, approach behaviour adopted, challenge accepted, risks undertaken, show persistence & perserverence when task is difficult, success attributed to internal factors 7 failure to external, failure seen as route to success, aspire to mastery orientation
3.1.2 NAF
3.1.2.1 low need to achieve, high need to avoid failure, avoidance behaviour adopted, challenge rejected, risks declined, curtails effort when task difficult, success attributed to external factors, failure internal factors, failure seen as route to further failure, adopt learned helplesness
3.2 links personality with degree of competitiveness shown by individual
3.3 Atkinson & Mclelland- achievement motivation generated through combination of personality & situational factors.
3.3.1 is a personality trait-activated by situation
3.3.1.1 situation= probability of success + incentive value of success
3.3.1.1.1 probability of success- more likley if task is easy
3.3.1.1.2 Incentive value of success- intrinsic value experienced by individual after success achieved- harder task= greater incentive as probability of success reduced
3.3.2 best when there is a 50/50 chance of success- high incentive
3.3.2.1 chances of success/failure even- likley to trigger motivation to achieve in high nach personalities
3.3.2.2 high achievers likley to display approach behaviour (accepts a challenge) + mastery orientation (strong motive to succeed- expect to succeed and will persist when failure is experienced)
3.3.2.3 performers with traits associated with low achievement motivation experience greatest anxiety in 50/50 success situations
3.3.2.3.1 low achievers most likley to adopt avoidance behaviour (avoid challenge) + experience learned helplessness ( failure is inevitable- individual has no control over factors that cause failure)
4 ATTRIBUTION THEORY
4.1 REASONS FOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE
4.1.1 coach should attribute success to internal factors-reinforce success and failure to external factors-sustain confidence.
4.1.2 high achievers
4.1.2.1 Adopt approach behaviour- attribute success to internal factors- ability, Failure down to external factors- luck
4.1.2.1.1 failure seen as temporary setback- self-serving bias. high achievers remain persistent in face of failure.
4.1.2.1.1.1 positive application of attribution. Consistent achievement + positive application of attribution promote mastery orientation.- encourage participation
4.1.3 low achievers
4.1.3.1 adopt avoidance behaviour- attribute lack of success to internal factors-ability. success to external factors- luck
4.1.3.1.1 this type of attribution takes away confidence + reduce expectation of future achievement.
4.1.3.1.1.1 negative application of attribution, repeated failure and negative application- cause athlete to experience learned helplessness. - may cause individual to avoid an activity.
4.2 ATTRIBUTION RETRAINING
4.2.1 changing the performers perception of causes of failure
4.2.2 focuses reasons for failure onto internal, unstable & unclontrollable factors e.g effort
4.2.3 process of attribution retraining- raises confidence, changes avoidance behaviour into approach behaviour, encourages mastery orientation, promote likelihood of lifelong participation.
4.3 CRITICAL EVALUATION ON PERFORMANCE AND BAHL
4.3.1 Positive applications of attribution- improve performance & help sustain balanced lifestyle
4.3.1.1 success- internal attributions
4.3.1.1.1 endorse mastery orientation (motive to succeed). boost confidence/self esteem, develop pride, increase expectation of success in future
4.3.1.2 Failure- external attributions
4.3.1.2.1 encourage pursuit of mastery orientation, sustain confidence/ self-esteem, eliminate shame, improve expectation of success in future
4.3.2 Negative applications of attribution- inhibit performance & reduce drive to sustain balanced lifestyle
4.3.2.1 success- external attributions
4.3.2.1.1 take away pride associated with success, take away incentive derived from mastery orientation.
4.3.2.2 failure-internal attributions
4.3.2.2.1 take away confidence by highlighting ability incompetence, leads to learned helplessness
4.4 reasons given by coaches & players for success + failure in sport
4.5 Weiners theory-links between attribution and achievement motivation
4.5.1 locus of causality- attribution relates to factors that are internal/external to performer
4.5.1.1 locus of causality- perceived causes of success/failure- internal/external
4.5.2 Stability-degree of permanence associated with attribution factor
4.5.3 control- factor in process of attribution retraining
4.5.4
5 AGGRESSION
5.1 ASSERTION
5.1.1 known as channelled aggression
5.1.2 does not attempt to harm & is within rules/spirit of the game
5.1.3 involves forceful play, focussed on completing the skill successfully
5.1.4 Parens- 'non hostile self protective mastery behaviour'
5.2 THEORIES OF AGGRESSION
5.2.1 Instinct theory- Freud
5.2.1.1 Aggression genetically inherited-trait of violence lies within everyone
5.2.2 Social learning theory- Bandura
5.2.2.1 Aggression not genetically based, nurtured through environment, aggression learned by watching & copying from role models- becomes accepted mode of behaviour if reinforced, more likely to occur if part of social norm
5.2.3 Frustration aggression hypothesis-Dollard
5.2.3.1 Interactionist theory- environmental circumstance stimulating personality gene, frustration develops when goal directed behaviour blocked, frustration triggers aggressive gene
5.2.4 Aggressive cue hypothesis- Berkowitz
5.2.4.1 Interactionist theory, frustration creates readiness for aggression- only triggered when provocative environmental cue present. Aggressive cues- perceived unfairness/ nature of game will trigger aggression in sport if arousal is high
5.3 hostile aggression-harm opponent, can become injured themselves/be sent off
5.3.1 aggressive player will disrupt teams performance & spoil cohesion of the group.
5.3.2 hostile aggression may increase arousal- cause reduced concentration and result in poor performance. Underachievement can lead to learned helplessness & inclination to give up
5.3.3 tend to feel anger & less satisfaction after completing activities- reduced motive to continue
5.4 METHODS TO ELIMINATE AGGRESSION
5.4.1 cognitive techniques
5.4.1.1 to do with thought processes & can involve psychological strategies
5.4.1.2 Forgetting/distancing, Imagery, Mental rehersal, Positive self talk, Reasoning, counting to 10
5.4.2 somatic techniques
5.4.2.1 Involve physiological(physical) strategies
5.4.2.2 positive relaxation techniques, walking away, bio feedback, breathing exercises

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