Key Topic 2: Three Cold War crises: Berlin, Cuba & Czechoslovakia 1957-69

Matt Phan
Mind Map by Matt Phan, updated more than 1 year ago
Matt Phan
Created by Matt Phan about 5 years ago


GCSE History (Superpowers) Mind Map on Key Topic 2: Three Cold War crises: Berlin, Cuba & Czechoslovakia 1957-69, created by Matt Phan on 05/28/2016.

Resource summary

Key Topic 2: Three Cold War crises: Berlin, Cuba & Czechoslovakia 1957-69
  1. Berlin Crisis
    1. Refugee problems
      1. The East German gov. was extremely unpopular. Consequently, many East Germans fled to West Germany who enjoyed greater freedom and prosperity. Between 1949-61, 2.7 million East Germany refugees, many of whom were highly skilled, escaped to West Germany. Berlin was the centre of the problem as it was easy for East Germans to move to West Berlin and then to West Germany.
      2. Khrushchev's Ultimatum 1958
        1. The refugee crisis was a propoganda disaster for the USSR as it showed how capitalism was superior to communism. As a result, in Nov 1958, Khrushchev declared Berlin a purely East German city. He issued an ultimatum that gave Western troops six months to withdraw from Berlin.
          1. Eisenhower's response
            1. Eisenhower did not want to lose West Berlin, but neither wanted to start a war. He agreed with Khrushchev to hold an international meeting to discuss Berlin's furture.
        2. Summits & Conferences
          1. Geneva May 1959
            1. Representatives from both countries met but nothing was agreed. Khrushchev wanted to hold face to face talks with Eisenhower.
            2. Camp David Sep 1959
              1. Both Eisenhower and Khrushchev were present. They did not agree on a solution to the problem but it was decided there would be a further summit next year. Khrushchev also withdrew his ultimatum.
              2. Paris May 1960
                1. 9 days before the conference the summit would take place, an American U2 spy plane was shot down over Russia and it's pilot was captured. During the conference, Eisenhower refused to apologise and Khrushchev walked out.
                2. Vienna Conference June 1961
                  1. Kennedy was the new US president. Neither side was willing to back down. Khrushchev thought he could exploit Kennedy's inexperience and thus reinstated his ultimatum to fluster Kennedy.
                    1. Kennedy's response
                      1. Kennedy refused to follow Khrushchev's ultimatum and increased spending on defence by $3.2 BN
                3. The Berlin Wall Aug 1961
                  1. Khrushchev could not do anything about the Western troops in West Berlin. Furthermore, The US had 20 times more nuclear weapons than the USSR. However, he still had to do something about the refugee issue.
                    1. On the night of 12 August 1961, East German troops secretly erected a barbed wire fence around all of West Berlin. Over the coming months, the fence was reinforced and became a heavily guarded wall.
                      1. Impacts of the Berlin wall
                        1. Stopped East Germans escaping to the West. It solved the refugee crisis
                          1. Allowed Khrushchev to avoid war with America whilst still appearing strong
                            1. Became a powerful symbol of the division of Germany and the division of Europe
                      2. Kennedy's visit to Berlin 1963
                        1. Kennedy toured West Berlin and expressed his feelings of solidarity with its people. Crowds of West Berliners shouted "Kenne-dy - Kenne-dy!".
                          1. In a famous speech, he said "All free men, wherever they live, are citizens of Berlin and therefore as a free man, I take pride in the words 'Ich bin ein Berliner'.
                      3. Cuban Missile Crisis
                        1. An assessment of the current situation
                          1. The US were the first to use a nuclear bomb in 1945. By 1949, the USSR had developed their first nuclear bomb. By 1960, Britain and France had their own nuclear arsenal and China were developing their own.
                            1. Concerns from both sides
                              1. The US were concerned at the rate at which the USSR were producing nuclear weapons and the size of those weapons e.g Tsar Bomba
                                1. The USSR were concerned that the US missiles were much closer to the USSR than vice versa. The US had set up nuclear missiles in Britain, Italy and Turkey; thus, the missiles would be more accurate and easier to deliver.
                                2. In 1957, the USSR launched the first artificial satellite into orbit. By 1960, the Russians had landed a robotic spacecraft on the moon. This showed how sophisticated the Russians were getting and Khrushchev used these advancements to boast and intimidate the Americans.
                                3. Cuban revolution
                                  1. Cuba is part of America's 'sphere of influence'. Most of the land was owned and run by American businesses. Traditionally, Cuba has been an ally of the USA as it is only 90 miles away from the shore.
                                    1. In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrew the pro-American government and wanted independence from the US. His government took over American property. In July 1960, after Castro's actions, America put an embargo on all Cuban products which threatened to bankrupt the country.
                                      1. However, Cuba instead traded with the USSR and nationalised all US businesses in Cuba. USSR offered to buy Cuban sugar and provided machinery, oil and technological assistance.
                                  2. Bay of Pigs
                                    1. By 1961, the CIA had tried and failed multiple times to assassinate Castro. The CIA persuaded Kennedy to launch an invasion against Castro's government.
                                      1. The plan was supposed to look like a Cuban revolt. Cuban exiles who supported Bastita (former leader) were trained by the CIA to form a small militia known as 'La Brigada'
                                        1. However, when La Brigada came ashore on the Bay of Pigs, they were met with 20,000 of Castro's troops whilst they only numbered 1,400. Air support came too late. They surrendered.
                                          1. 2 days prior to the invasion, disguised US planes bombed Castro's aur base but most planes missed their targets. The planes were photographed and US involvement was made public. Consequently, Kennedy cancelled a second air strike.
                                            1. Furthermore, Cubans did not want Bastita back
                                              1. Castro's government knew about the attack before hand.
                                                1. After the attack, Castro declared himself communist and Khrushchev placed nuclear weapons on Cuban soil
                                          2. Thirteen days (1962)
                                            1. 16 Oct: Kennedy is informed of Khrushchev's plans to place nuclear missiles on Cuba.
                                              1. 20 Oct: Kennedy decides to impose a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent Russian supplies coming in.
                                                1. 22 Oct: Kennedy officially declares the blockade and calls Khrushchev to withdraw his ships.
                                                  1. 24 Oct: Soviet ships approach the blockade. The closes ships suddenly stop or turn around.
                                                    1. 25 Oct: American and Soviet armed forces are on the highest level of alert and are told to prepare for war. Kennedy writes to Khrushchev telling him to withdraw missiles from cuba.
                                                      1. 26 Oct: Khrushchev says he will withdrw missiles in return for America guranteing they will not invade Cuba.
                                                        1. 27 Oct: Khrushchev receives intelligence the US will invade Cuba in 24 hours. He proposes a deal: He will withdraw missiles from Cuba so long as America does not invade Cuba and withdraws missiles from Turkey. Robert Kennedy (Kennedy's bro) accepts the deal so long as the withdrawal of missiles from Turkey is kept secret
                                                          1. 28 Oct: Khrushchev accepts the deal.
                                              2. Consequences
                                                1. Long term
                                                  1. By 1965, both countries were equal in nuclear capability. This lead to the MAD theory.
                                                    1. France left NATO in 1966 fearing they would be destroyed when dragged into a nuclear war.
                                                    2. Short term
                                                      1. The 'hot line' was introduced (June 1963). A direct communications link between Washington and Moscow.
                                                        1. Limited Test Ban Treaty Aug 1963. Banned testing of nuclear weapons in space, sea or overground. Underground testing was permitted.
                                                    3. Hawks and Doves
                                                      1. Hawks were advisors who wanted an aggressive policy. Many wanted a nuclear war.
                                                        1. Doves were advisors who prefered more diplomatic strategies as they thought that was the best chance of peace.
                                                      2. Czechoslovakia
                                                        1. Since Czechoslovakia became a satellite state in 1948, the people were ruled by the secret police and suffered decreasing standard of living.
                                                          1. After the unpopular leader, Antonin Novotny fell from power, Dubcek replaced him in 1968.
                                                            1. Dubcek was a committed communist who had good relations with Brezhnev. he wanted to create a popular form of Communism. he called it 'socialism with a human face'.
                                                            2. The Prague Spring Reforms (April 1968)
                                                              1. Relaxation of Press censorship
                                                                1. Legalisaation of political opposition groups
                                                                  1. Toleration for criticism against the government
                                                                    1. More power given to regional governments
                                                                      1. More power given to Czech government.
                                                                        1. 'Market socialism' introduced. Meant a more capitalist economy.
                                                                          1. Brezhnev's reaction to the Prague Spring reforms.
                                                                            1. Although Brezhnev regarded Dubcek as a friend, he felt his reforms had gone too far. From April to July, Brezhnev was in constant contact to persuade him to stop.
                                                                              1. Brezhnev ordered a full scale invasion of Czechoslovakia to overthrow Dubcek. He sent 500,000 troops to Czechoslovakia on 20 August.
                                                                                1. Dubcek was arrested and taken to Moscow. He was forced to sign the Moscow Protocol, which reintroduced censorship and removing political opposition.
                                                                                  1. As a result of Dubcek's actions Brezhnev introduced the Brezhnev Doctrine
                                                                                    1. Brezhnev Doctrine
                                                                                      1. A doctrine signed in November 1968 affirming the right to invade any country in Eastern Europe whose actions appeared to deviate from communism and undermine the Eastern bloc.
                                                                                  2. Dubcek ordered people not to respond with violence
                                                                                    1. Put flowers in soldier's hair.
                                                                                      1. Threw burning torches at tanks
                                                                                        1. Students stood in the way of tanks holding banners
                                                                                        2. International reaction
                                                                                          1. America
                                                                                            1. Although they condemned the invasion, they could provide no military help as America was still enveloped in the bloody Vietnam War.
                                                                                            2. West Europe
                                                                                              1. Governments condemned the attack but offered no military aid.
                                                                                                1. Western European communists were ouraged by the invasion. They declared themselves indepndent of the Soviet communist party and became 'Eurocommunists'
                                                                                                2. East Europe
                                                                                                  1. Yugoslavian and Romanian governments condemned the attack and formed alliances with China. This divided the communist world even further.
                                                                                                    1. East German and Polish governments welcomed the invasion as they were concerned Czechoslovakia was being too liberal
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