Alexander II reforms 1855 - 1881

charlotte151996
Mind Map by charlotte151996, updated more than 1 year ago
charlotte151996
Created by charlotte151996 about 7 years ago
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History (1881 - 24) Mind Map on Alexander II reforms 1855 - 1881, created by charlotte151996 on 04/29/2013.
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Alexander II reforms 1855 - 1881
1 Emancipation of the serfs - 1861
1.1 Approx. 80% of the population were serfs.
1.2 Serfdom recognised as a major obstacle for the the modernisation of Russian society.
1.2.1 Subsistence agriculture - serfs produced only enough food to feed themselves.
1.2.1.1 Little produce available for export and in times of poor harvest there was widespread famine.
1.2.2 By 1855 Russia was the only major power which still kept serfdom.
1.3 1861 - Alexander II issed imperial decree which abolished serfdom.
1.3.1 Owners of the land had to be compensated by the state.
1.3.1.1 Serfs had to pay redemption payments (taxes) to the Russian Government - for 49 years.
1.3.2 Serfs forced to live in 'mirs' (communes) where land was held collectively.
1.3.2.1 Administered by the elders of the community.
1.3.2.1.1 Elders redistribute the land according to need - major obstacle to agricultural improvement.
1.3.2.1.2 When wanting to leave the mir, he or she would have to get the elders permission.
1.3.2.2 Stopped movement of people into towns, impeding industry development.
1.3.2.2.1 1891 Famine - Historians regarded the famine as a major landmark in the crisis which engulfed the Tsarist autocracy.
2 Political
2.1 1864 - Alexander II introduced the first form of elective government in Russian history.
2.1.1 Limited to the educated and wealthy.
2.2 Zemstva - local government units in rural areas.
2.2.1 Limited to elementary education and road buliding. 1870 - elected local gov. extended to towns and cities.
3 Judical
3.1 1870 - introduced trial by jury.
3.2 Ordinary Russians participated in the dispensation of justice.
3.2.1 Before 1870 - justice preserve of Tsar's officals.
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