B1.1 Keeping healthy

mhancoc3
Mind Map by mhancoc3, updated more than 1 year ago
mhancoc3
Created by mhancoc3 about 7 years ago
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GCSE Biology (B1) Mind Map on B1.1 Keeping healthy, created by mhancoc3 on 03/15/2014.

Resource summary

B1.1 Keeping healthy
  1. Diet and Exercise
    1. A healthy diet consists of:
      1. Carbohydrate
        1. Release Energy, growth and repair
        2. Protien
          1. Release energy, growth and repair
          2. Fat
            1. release energy, growth and repair
            2. Vitamins
              1. Without these you get defficiency disease
              2. Minerals
                1. Fibre
                  1. Water
                  2. Not a balanced diet = malnourishment
                    1. Too much energy = gain in weight, too little = loss of weight
                      1. Warmer country = less food
                      2. Food supplies muscles energy
                        1. Metabolic rate
                          1. Rate of chemical reactions
                            1. affected by proportion of muscle fat
                              1. affected by exercise levels
                                1. genetic
                              2. Weight Problems
                                1. Obesity
                                  1. Fat needed to cushion internal organs and as an energy store
                                    1. Too much = overweight/obese
                                      1. Leads to arthritis, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease
                                        1. Early death
                                        2. Losing Weight
                                          1. reduce intake or increase output
                                            1. too much weight loss = malnourishment.
                                              1. Deficiency disease - lack of mineral ions and vitamins
                                                1. common in unbalanced diets
                                            2. Inheritance, Exercise and Health
                                              1. Inheriting Health
                                                1. Metabolic rate
                                                  1. Muscle:fat
                                                    1. risk of heart disease
                                                      1. Blood cholesterol levels
                                                        1. Controlling Cholesterol
                                                          1. needed for cell membranes and to make vital hormones
                                                            1. 2 forms carried by blood - 1 healthy
                                                              1. Bad balance, high heart disease risk
                                                                1. Balanced diet helps liver balance cholesterol
                                                          2. Pathogen And Disease
                                                            1. Infectious disease caused by microorganisms (pathogens: eg. Virus/bacteria)
                                                              1. Bacteria
                                                                1. single celled
                                                                  1. many harmless
                                                                    1. useful in food and medical scenarios
                                                                    2. Viruses
                                                                      1. Smaller than bacteria
                                                                        1. regular shape
                                                                          1. Cause disease in all living organisms (including bacteria)
                                                                          2. How they cause disease
                                                                            1. reproduce rapidly
                                                                              1. Bacteria split in two and produce toxins
                                                                                1. Viruses take over and destroy the cells
                                                                                  1. Common symptoms
                                                                                    1. headache
                                                                                      1. temperature
                                                                                        1. rashes
                                                                                          1. Bodies response to toxin
                                                                                        2. Ignaz Semmelweis
                                                                                          1. Got doctors to wash hands
                                                                                            1. not accepted
                                                                                              1. too small to see
                                                                                                1. Didn't like the blame
                                                                                            2. Defense Mechanisms
                                                                                              1. Ways Spread
                                                                                                1. Droplet infection
                                                                                                  1. coughing / sneezing / talking
                                                                                                  2. Direct contact
                                                                                                    1. skin
                                                                                                    2. Food
                                                                                                      1. raw
                                                                                                        1. contaminated
                                                                                                        2. Break in the skin
                                                                                                          1. cut
                                                                                                            1. Scratch
                                                                                                              1. needle puncture
                                                                                                            2. Preventing Entry
                                                                                                              1. Skin
                                                                                                                1. barrier
                                                                                                                2. Blood clots / scabs
                                                                                                                  1. Mucus in breathing system
                                                                                                                    1. traps pathogens which are either expelled or swallowed and destroyed in acid
                                                                                                                    2. White Blood Cells
                                                                                                                      1. immune system
                                                                                                                        1. ingest
                                                                                                                          1. antibodies
                                                                                                                            1. antitoxins
                                                                                                                        2. Using Drugs To Treat Disease
                                                                                                                          1. most drugs do not affect the pathogen, they ease symptoms.
                                                                                                                            1. Antibiotics
                                                                                                                              1. Antiseptics and disinfectants kill bacteria outside the body but are too poisonous so would kill you.
                                                                                                                                1. Work inside the body
                                                                                                                                  1. Damage bacterial cells not your own
                                                                                                                                    1. Do not work on viruses as they are in your own cells
                                                                                                                                    2. Penicillin
                                                                                                                                      1. Alexander Fleming
                                                                                                                                        1. Untidy desk, mistaken experiment
                                                                                                                                          1. Mould stopping bacteria growth
                                                                                                                                            1. Juices from the mould
                                                                                                                                          2. Growing and Investigating Bacteria
                                                                                                                                            1. culture microorganisms to find out more
                                                                                                                                              1. You must give them
                                                                                                                                                1. energy source with minerals
                                                                                                                                                  1. warmth
                                                                                                                                                    1. Oxygen
                                                                                                                                                      1. Nutrients in agar jelly
                                                                                                                                                      2. Beware of mutation and contamination from skin, air, water, etc.
                                                                                                                                                        1. How to culture them
                                                                                                                                                          1. Put in sterilised petri dish with agar jelly
                                                                                                                                                            1. Inoculate and incubate (25C)
                                                                                                                                                          2. Changing Pathogens
                                                                                                                                                            1. If antibiotics are not used correctly, the bacteria develope resistance
                                                                                                                                                              1. This is through Natural selection
                                                                                                                                                              2. Antibiotics have been overused so developed strains are still around
                                                                                                                                                                1. MRSA
                                                                                                                                                                  1. 1000 deaths a year in UK hospitals
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Prevented by:
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Only using Antibiotics when needed
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Use the correct type of antibiotic
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Wash hands and dispose of clothing
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Isolation
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Cleanliness
                                                                                                                                                                            2. Mutation and Pandemic
                                                                                                                                                                              1. New strains spread quickly
                                                                                                                                                                                1. epidemic (1 country)
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Pandemic (worldwide)
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Eg. Swine Flu
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Immunity
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. All cells have proteins on surface (antigens)
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. White Blood Cells make antibodies to join with antigens and retain memory of the pathogen for future use.
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Vaccination and Immunisation
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Vaccine - dead or weakened disease
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. MMR
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. They work for bacterial and viral Pathogens
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. How do we deal with Disease
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Whooping Cough
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Thought it led to brain damage, did not
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Worry caused
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