Antibodies & Penicillin

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE History (Medicine Through Time) Mind Map on Antibodies & Penicillin, created by s.b on 03/20/2014.

Created by s.b over 5 years ago
History- Medicine through time key figures
1. Prehistoric Medicine
Evangeline Taylor
2. Egyptain Medicine
Evangeline Taylor
Globalisation Case Studies
Biology B1
Kelsey Phillips
History- Medicine through time key figures
Main People in Medicine Through Time
Holly Bamford
Medicine Through Time
Molly Jones
5. The Middle Ages Medicine
Evangeline Taylor
7. 19th Century Medicine
Evangeline Taylor
Antibodies & Penicillin
1 Paul Ehrlich
1.1 1889 - He wanted to find chemicals that could act as synthetic antibodies.
1.2 He discovered dyes that could kill malaria and sleeping sickness germs.
1.2.1 1905 - spirochete bacterium that caused STD syphilis was identified. Arsenic & Mercury had been used with some success to cure syphilis but both are poisonous. He researched the arsenic compound that was a magic bullet for syphilis. They wanted to target the spirochetes without poisoning the rest of the body. They tried over 600 compounds but none worked. In 1909, Sahachiro Hata joined the team. He rechecked teh results and found that compound number 606 appeared to work. 1911 - It was used on a human.
2 Antibodies were discovered as a natural defence mechanism against germs.
2.1 They knew that antibodies one attacked specific microbes so they were called magic bullets.
3 Alexander Fleming
3.1 He saw lots of soldiers die of septic wounds when working in a hospital in WW1.
3.1.1 He identified the antiseptic substance in tears, lysozyme in 1922. It only worked on some germs. 1928 - he came to clean up old culture which he was groowing staphylococci on for experiments. He fungal spore had contaminated one. Around it the colonies of staphylococci. It was identified as Penicillium notatum - Penicillin.
4 Gerhard Domagk
4.1 1932 - found that red dye, Prontosil stopped the streptococcus microbe from multiplying in mice.
4.1.1 It caused fatal blood poisoning that could be contracted from minor wounds.
4.1.2 His daughter pricked herself on a needle and caught the disease. He gave her a dose of Prontosil and she recovered. The active ingredient was a sulphonamide and so a group of drugs followed. Negative side effects were discovered later as they damage the liver and kidney. It turned her bright red though!
5 Florey and Chain
5.1 Penicillin needed purifying
5.1.1 Chain devised the freeze-drying technique. They knew they need to grow lots of it for WW2 British chemical firms were too busy making explosives. He went to America who joined the war in 1941. By 1944, mass production was sufficient for the military medics. They all got nobel prizes in 1945.

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