The Enlightenment

hmlc97
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

History (FRENCH REVOLUTION) Mind Map on The Enlightenment, created by hmlc97 on 04/09/2014.

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hmlc97
Created by hmlc97 over 5 years ago
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The Enlightenment
1 What were people complaining about in the early 1780s?
1.1 1) The Tax System

Annotations:

  • - 3rd estate paid brunt of taxation - 1st and 2nd estates largely exempt, e.g. gabelle and taille - Church only paid don gratuit - 3rd estate therefore demanded reform- 85% of population!
1.2 2)Nobles Rights

Annotations:

  • - feudal rights over peasants.... payments, seigneurial courts, hunting and fishing rights, monopoly of operating mills, ovens, winepresses etc. - excessive privileges... tax exemptions, exempt from military service and corvée - could buy your way into nobility (venality)- unfair and prevented meritocracy.... in 1749, nearly everyone with an income of over 1/2 a million were nobles in Paris
1.3 3)Corruption in the Church

Annotations:

  • - Parish Priests not treated fairly.. e.g. problems with the tithe - In 1789, all but one of the 135 bishops were of noble birth - Some bishops more interested in pursuing political power... leading to absenteeism - Many criticised this Church hierarchy and also the monarchy... as the monarchy supported the persecution of the Jansenists (Catholics who disliked power and corruption of Pope and bishops)
1.4 4) Corruption at court

Annotations:

  • - The system of venality prevented meritocracy - Tax collection was also collected by those under this system of venality and they could not be dismissed, therefore causing resentment as people paying taxes knew not all of their money wold reach the treasury
1.5 5) Life in towns

Annotations:

  • - standard of living was very low... life expectancy at birth was a staggering 28.5 years! - prices in grain were incredibly significant and rises could create huge unrest and public disorder as peasants largely relied on bread
2 MONTESQUIEU
2.1 Was of noble status and his father was a minor nobleman
2.1.1 He therefore saw nobility's privileges as necessary for protection against despotism
2.2 President of Parlement of Bordeaux
2.3 After retiring, travelled Europe and was greatly influenced by the English system of government
2.4 Wrote 'Lettres Persanes'... criticised aspects of French society through the eyes of foreigners to avoid censorship!
2.5 Wrote 'De L'Esprit des Lois'... identifying different types of government and which gov. types would be suitable to different types of society (immediately placed on RC index!)
2.6 MAIN IDEAS:
2.6.1 1) Noble Privileges necessary
2.6.1.1 2) Should be a balance of powers, i.e. separation of powers to avoid absolutism (favoured a CONSTITUTION)

Annotations:

  • Ideas of a separation of powers cna be found in the American Constitution... the executive, the legislative and the judiciary
2.6.1.1.1 3) Disliked organised religion and mocked principles of Catholicism
2.6.1.1.1.1 4) Believed in reform of criminals
2.6.1.1.1.1.1 5) Argued that arms races increased likelihood of war and urged countries to stop
2.6.1.1.1.1.1.1 6) Argued that the State existed to protect the poor
3 VOLTAIRE
3.1 Lawyer

Annotations:

  • He therefore upheld various campaigns against the abuse of laws
3.2 He too travelled the England and admired the British constitution and society
3.3 Produced 'Candide'... criticising human naivety, religion and 18th century warfare
3.4 MAIN IDEAS:
3.4.1 Wanted an absolute monarchy, but with nobles/philosophers guiding the King (enlightened despotism)
3.4.1.1 He didn't believe in equality, but he also didn't agree with tyranny

Annotations:

  • "No government can be effective unless it has absolute power"
3.4.1.1.1 Ultimately wanted to reduce power of RC Church

Annotations:

  • "If God did not exist it would be necessary to invent him"
3.4.1.1.1.1 Favoured education of upper class
3.4.1.1.1.1.1 Great advocate of liberty
4 ROUSSEAU
4.1 lower class background
4.1.1 Revolution therefore heavily inspired by him
4.1.2 Hated classism and social inequality
4.2 Produced 'Emile'... a book about education, advocating the need for education to be centred around the needs of the child rather than to haul them into adulthood
4.3 Produced 'The Social Contact'... developed the concept of the 'general will,' i.e. democracy
4.3.1 However, also realised that one person might know what is in everyone's best interests and at times should impose general rules, i.e. dictatorship
4.4 Ideas have had a lasting impact...
4.4.1 Polish gov. asked for his advice on how to reform their constitution
4.4.2 Robespierre tried to introduced system of gov. based on the general will- collapsed after one year
4.4.3 However... in 'Confessions' he admitted to being a thief and having several illegitimate children!
5 PHYSIOCRATS AND TURGOT
5.1 Principally believed in Laissez-Faire, abolition of guilds, monopolies, tariffs and wealthy privileges
5.1.1 Can be seen in implementation of free trade in grain and a single land tax
5.2 Wanted a strong monarch to maintain the natural law of things... needed 'legal despotism' to overcome forces of privilege
5.3 Believed efforts should be made to stimulate natural products since the wealth of the Nation depended on agriculture
5.4 Turgot........ followed physiocratic ideas and became finance minister in 1774
5.4.1 Had the chance to put Physiocratic ideas into practice and failed
5.4.1.1 However, concepts of laissez-faire were widely accepted in the 19th century

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