Mass immigration- impact on society and politics

Bethan Stevenson
Mind Map by Bethan Stevenson, updated more than 1 year ago
Bethan Stevenson
Created by Bethan Stevenson almost 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Mass immigration- impact on society and politics, created by Bethan Stevenson on 04/11/2014.
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Mass immigration- impact on society and politics
1 Nation of immigrants
1.1 9 million foreign-born Americans by 1890
1.1.1 still hadn't reached its peak
1.2 American society transforming
1.2.1 had been changed by earlier generation of immigrants
1.2.1.1 e.g. Irish In Boston, Scandinavians in the Great Lakes region and Chinese labourers brought in to help with building the transcontinental railroads
1.2.1.2 bewildering mix of people and culture settled in the great metropolitan cities like Chicago and New York
1.3 Between 1890 and 1914, even greater flood of immigrants arrived
1.3.1 Most earlier immigrants came from Northern Europe
1.3.1.1 Britain, Ireland, Germany and Scandinavia
1.3.2 After 1900 surge of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe
1.3.2.1 Jews from Russian Empire, peasants from southern Italy, Spain and Portugal, and millions from south-east Europe
1.3.2.1.1 The influx of these millions accelerated transformation of USA - rapid economic growth due to population explotion
1.4 After 1890, the flood of immigration reached its peak
1.4.1 motivated by push and pull factors
1.4.1.1 Many immigrants lured to America by positive dream of improving their life
1.4.1.1.1 economic migrants
1.4.1.2 Others forced to be uprooted- due to political or religious persecution
1.4.1.2.1 Russian Jews, economic collapse in own country, fear of starvation (many from Italy for this reason)
1.5 two million African Americans migrated northwards between 1900-1910
2 The Impact of immigration on society
2.1 'melting pot'- traditional view of assimilating new citizens
2.1.1 forging new nation from those seeking a better life in the New World
2.1.2 in actuality, it was more like a 'mosiac'
2.1.2.1 immigrants often clung together in localised communities
2.1.2.2 for example, almost every city in the east had a 'Little Italy'
2.1.2.3 Catholic Irish and Polish immigrants often lived in Boston and Chicago
2.1.2.4 Jews from tsarist Russia dominated garment industry in New York until it was taken over by Italians
2.2 After 1890- mass immigration led to fundamental changes in both US society
2.2.1 Although many earlier immigrants lived in rural areas, greatest impact within cities
2.2.1.1 by 1900- population of USA grown to 76 million
2.2.1.1.1 38 cities with a population of 100,000 or more
2.2.1.1.2 after 1900, increase in urban population was dramatic
2.2.2 birth rate actually declining compared with earlier in the 19th century
2.2.2.1 but the death rate was 16.5 per thousand- lowest in the world
2.3 tide of immigration led to tensions, discriminations and conflict
2.3.1 many cases of friction between the new immigrants and the old
2.3.1.1 often worsened through religion
2.3.2 many that had arrived from Northern Europe in 19th century were protestants
2.3.2.1 those that had come after the 1900 were mostly Catholics or Jews
3 Mass immigration and politics
3.1 political power remained chiefly with WASPs
3.1.1 many instances of anti-Catholic prejudices holding back the political aspirations of immigrant communities
4 Discrimination
4.1 also rivalries between different ethic groups as the competed for things such as jobs and housing
4.1.1 Irish-Americans provide one notable example of an ethnic community sticking together and maximising political influence
5 Prohibition
5.1 big social issue for immigrants
5.1.1 reflected impact of immigration on American society
5.1.1.1 showed gulf between small US towns and the new booming cities
5.2 had religious overtones because not only the Irish but also many in the new wave of immigrants after 1890 were Catholic
5.3 drinking, especially for men, essential part of many immigrants social lives
6 people against immigration
6.1 cultural conflict over prohibition overlapped with other reactions against immigration
6.1.1 ideas of nativism and the movement to stop the flow of immigrants grew stronger
6.1.1.1 especially after 1910
6.1.1.1.1 an aspect of this was the revival of the KKK during and after WW1
6.1.1.1.1.1 reformed in 1915
6.2 African Americans met with hostility
6.2.1 much like the discrimination from the South
6.2.1.1 migration had little impact on social attitudes or politics
6.2.2 segregated even in WWI
6.3 local acts of violence
6.3.1 11 Italian-American lynching's in New Orleans 1891
6.4 trade unions against immigration
6.4.1 kept pay levels low
6.4.2 most members immigrants/ sons of immigrants
6.5 Quota Act 1921
6.5.1 regulated immigation
6.5.2 3% per year of foreign-born people of the same nationality who already lived in the USA in 1910
6.6 it would be another generation, after another world war, before long-term trends finally opened the door for civil rights movements
6.6.1 1950s and 60s
6.7 small-town America worried about 'alien' influences undermining traditional and religious values
6.7.1 such ideas gained widespread support during years of 20th century
6.7.1.1 when immigration levels peaked
6.8 issue gained national prominence 1912 election
6.8.1 but Taft, Wilson and Roosevelt were against setting quotas on immigration
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