1.1.1 Poor relations (Scotland and
France were allies). In 1559 the Catholic
Guise family came to power in France who
sent troops to garrison Scottish fortresses.
Elizabeth sent money and armaments,
sent the navy and blockaded the Port of
Leith. French forced to withdraw - Treaty of
Edinburgh. 1960 Guises fell from power,
MQS returned to Scotland
1.2.1 Netherlands - vital to
English trade. Elizabeth
fearful of Spanish invasion
as Philip II had control over
1.3.1 Good relations
1.4.1 France - were at war with France
but Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
ended war and meant France would
have Calais for 8 years then it
would return to England.
1.4.2 1962 Duke of Guise killed a
congregation of Huguenots.
Elizabeth gave 6000 men and
£30,000. Huguenot army defeated
and Guise assassinated. England
driven out of Le Havre by Guise and
Huguenots. 1564 Treaty of Troyes
meant England lost Calais.
2.1.1 1572 Treaty of Blois -
league against Spain.
France abandoned support
for MQS claim to throne
2.2.1 Bad relations started when Hawkins
tried to break a Spanish trading
monopoly in the Caribbean.
2.2.2 Philip wanted control over Netherlands to
remove Protestant influence. He sent
troops to deal with rebellion. Elizabeth
found ways to harass Spain: Spanish
vessels in Devon and Cornwall carried
400,000 florins - Elizabeth seized this.
Alba was encouraged to seize English
property in the Netherlands - trade with
Netherlands came to a halt due to an
2.3.1 MQS marriage to Danley led to fall
from power of Protestant nobility,
reducing English influence at court.
Danley was Catholic. Marriage
collapses and a coup led by Moray
led to Mary's fall in Scotland.
2.3.2 Moray assassinated in 1570 and
there was a civil war between Mary's
supporters and Protestants. Northern
rebels joined Mary's supporters.
Elizabeth sent troops to Scotland.
Sussex sent troops to Edinburgh. 3rd
invasion led rebels to give up.
2.4.1 Muscovy Company in 1555 to
trade with Russia and Northern
Europe. Growing trade with
Morocco and Guinea
2.4.2 Hawkins invented the English slave trade.
In 1562 slaves were acquired from Africa
and sold in South America (this angered
Spain). This was financially successful.
Second expedition secured investment from
nobles and Queen. 3rd expedition went
wrong as his fleet was blockaded in the
3.1.1 1572 Elizabeth expelled Sea Beggars (Dutch
pirates) from English ports. They landed in a
dutch port and started a revolt against Alba's
high tax and repression. Elizabeth allowed
rebels to recruit English soldiers.
3.1.2 1575 Spanish launched a military
offensive. Netherlands rose against
Spanish (Spanish fury in 1576 - troops went
on a murdering rampage). Rebels
produced Pacification of Ghent which called
for expulsion of foreign troops and
restoration of autonomy. Spanish troops left
3.1.3 1577 Spanish troops returned and Elizabeth gave
the Dutch £100,000 and sent a mercenary army to
fight on behalf of the rebels. However, Netherlands
split into Union of Utrecht (Northern and Protestant)
and the Union of Arras (Southern and Catholic).
Spanish made peace with Union of Arras. Duke of
Parma began reconquest of North.
188.8.131.52 Tensions worsened as Elizabeth supported a
Portagese pretender, knighted Drake (who
infuriated Spanish) and supported the ill treatment
of the Spanish ambassador. Parma's reconquest
gained momentum and William of Ornage (rebel
leader) was assassinated in 1584. Philip II and
Catholic League in France joined together in 1584
Treaty of Joinville.
3.1.4 Treaty of Nonsuch joined Elizabeth and Dutch
rebels. She provided 6400 infantry and 1000
cavalry. Crown controlled some ports and Drake
secured ships captured in the Caribbean. After
failing to make peace with Parma, she sent
troops under Leicster. Rebels wanted Leicster to
resign as: troops were ill-disciplined, some
officers joined Parma, Leicster disagreed with
rebels over taxtation, religion and trade in the
South. Leiscter attempted a coup but resigned in
1588. This influenced Spain's Armada stratergy.
3.2.1 Thousands of French Huguenots killed in
St Bartholomews massacre. Elizabeth
sentarms to Protestants and allowed
them to use English ships. Treaty of Blois
renewed in 1574 which would continue
financial support to Protestants. Difficulty
of maintaining approach led to marriage
negotiations with Anjou. Public opinion
was against this.
3.2.2 Elizabeth wanted a formal alliance with
France. In 1581 an Anglo-French
league was proposed and it offered aid
for ANjou to lead an expedition to the
Netherlands. Henry III agreed on the
condition that Elizabeth and Anjou marry
- she refused. She took responsibility
for Anjou's expedition and this was a
disaster. He attempted a coup but was
driven out of the Netherlands.
3.3.1 Origins of war - Philip angered by Elizabeth's support
for Don Antonio's attack on the Azores in 1581 - this
was seen as a vitall communication base for trade
with Americas. Elizabeth angry about Spanish
involvement in Catholic plots against her and was
pressured by the Privy Council and public.
3.3.2 Increased tension due to Treaty of English ships in Spanish
ports, Elizabeth's alliance with Sharif of Fez and her sending of
troops into the Netherlands. Drake's 1585 attack on Spanish ports
led Philip to send an Armada. Philip lost Parma's support but he
stilled helped with the Armada.
3.3.3 Armada was defeated due to: Philip lacked control of
Netherlands coastline, death of armada leader,
England sent fire ships to vessels, England sunk 3
ships and drove 3 ashore, and north-westerly winds
disrupted Spain and meant Philip and Parma couldn't
3.4.1 Markets for English wool moved from Southern to Northern Netherlands.
Increase in trade with Ottoman empire and North America. Raleigh gained
support from investors and in 1585 receievd a patent from the Queen to
colonise Virginia - attempts to colonise were disastrous due to poor
organisation, poor luck and pre-occupation with Spain from Elizabeth.
4.1.1 1589 expedition to Portugal aiming to: destroy remainders
of Armada, place Don Antonio on Portugese throne to
ensure portugese independence, secure Azores and steal
Spanish vessels. Expedition was a disaster due to poor
organisation and resources, and it was overambitious.
4.1.2 From 1589-91 236 privately financed vessels operated.
1589 expeditions were successful. 1590-1 expeditions
unsuccessful under Frobisher and Hawkins. 1592, all
privateers, except Raleigh, made a profit. Cumberland made
a profit in 93 but not 94.Expeditions meant Spain had to
defend ships, decreasing resources used in Netherlands.
4.1.3 From 1595 there were 3 attacks on mainland
Spain. Spanish treasure from Peru was carried
across Panama - Drake planned to challenge the
Spanish at Panama - he got the support of Essex.
The plan achieved some plunder but the
expedition never reached Panama. Drake and
Hawkins died during its course. A 1596
expedition by Raliegh and Howard captured Cadiz
and seized 4 galleons.But most investors made a
loss. However, it humiliated Philip. There was a
conflict between Crowns strategic needs and
desire to make money by private investors. Essex
led a 1597 fleet to attack a Spanish fleet. Winds
set Essex back and a Spanish fleet got past him
but luckily winds meant it couldn't land in Ireland
(they tried to exploit the fact there was an Irish
rebellion). A 1598 venture under Cumberland with
18 ships and 1000 soldiers - he wanted to seize
Spanish goods from Puerto Rico. He took it but an
epidemic of dynersty killed his force and he had
to flee. By 1599 Elizabeth decided on defensive
4.2.1 Henry III died and was succeeded by Henry of Navarre (Huguenot).
Most French cities were in Catholic League hands. Elizabeth sent
3600 troops. Henry won a victory but English troops helped assert
authority over Northern France. Duke of Parma sent troops in Battle
of Ivy but was unsuccessful. In 1590 Elizabeth sent a force to
Brittany and Normandy as Henry feared invasion from Parma or
Duke of Savoy.Troops in Normandy were relatively useless but
Brittany troops destroyed Spanish fortresses at Crozon, removing
the possibillity of Spanish invasion of Brittany. Anglo-French
relations worsened as Henry burdened Elizabeth with problems.
4.3.1 Morale lifted by victory in Bergen-op-zoom. Vere replaced
Willoughby as commander and was highly capable. Territory
lost to Parma was gradually recovered. By 1594, the
Spanish were expelled from the Northern Netherlands
which became an independent state. Southern Netherlands
had some degree of autonomy.
4.4.1 The Earl of Tyrone centered a rebellion on Ulster in 1595. The
Spanish tried to exploit the situation by including an Irishmen in the
1596 armada.An English force was defeated in the Battle of Yellow
in 1598. Most of Ireland lay out of English control - close to becoming
an independent Catholic Ireland. Essex was sent in 1599 to go North
but instead he made a truce with Tyrone. The truce expired and
Tyrone moved South to meet a Spanish army. Carew recaptured
Munster and Mounjoy pushed Tyrone back to Ulster.Spanish troops
landed in 1601. The English forced O'Donnell to retreat with the
Spanish and Tyrone retreated to Ulster. Tyrone and Mountjoy agreed
a peace treaty in 1603. James I suffered worening relations after
Elizabeth died and Irish nobility could rule.