Elizabeth Foreign Policy

holliemontague
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Elizabeth Foreign Policy, created by holliemontague on 04/25/2014.

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holliemontague
Created by holliemontague over 5 years ago
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Elizabeth Foreign Policy
1 1559
1.1 Scotland
1.1.1 Poor relations (Scotland and France were allies). In 1559 the Catholic Guise family came to power in France who sent troops to garrison Scottish fortresses. Elizabeth sent money and armaments, sent the navy and blockaded the Port of Leith. French forced to withdraw - Treaty of Edinburgh. 1960 Guises fell from power, MQS returned to Scotland
1.2 Netherlands
1.2.1 Netherlands - vital to English trade. Elizabeth fearful of Spanish invasion as Philip II had control over Netherlands.
1.3 Spain
1.3.1 Good relations
1.4 France
1.4.1 France - were at war with France but Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended war and meant France would have Calais for 8 years then it would return to England.
1.4.2 1962 Duke of Guise killed a congregation of Huguenots. Elizabeth gave 6000 men and £30,000. Huguenot army defeated and Guise assassinated. England driven out of Le Havre by Guise and Huguenots. 1564 Treaty of Troyes meant England lost Calais.
2 1564
2.1 France
2.1.1 1572 Treaty of Blois - Anglo-French defensive league against Spain. France abandoned support for MQS claim to throne
2.2 Spain
2.2.1 Bad relations started when Hawkins tried to break a Spanish trading monopoly in the Caribbean.
2.2.2 Philip wanted control over Netherlands to remove Protestant influence. He sent troops to deal with rebellion. Elizabeth found ways to harass Spain: Spanish vessels in Devon and Cornwall carried 400,000 florins - Elizabeth seized this. Alba was encouraged to seize English property in the Netherlands - trade with Netherlands came to a halt due to an embargo.
2.3 Scotland
2.3.1 MQS marriage to Danley led to fall from power of Protestant nobility, reducing English influence at court. Danley was Catholic. Marriage collapses and a coup led by Moray led to Mary's fall in Scotland.
2.3.2 Moray assassinated in 1570 and there was a civil war between Mary's supporters and Protestants. Northern rebels joined Mary's supporters. Elizabeth sent troops to Scotland. Sussex sent troops to Edinburgh. 3rd invasion led rebels to give up.
2.4 Trade
2.4.1 Muscovy Company in 1555 to trade with Russia and Northern Europe. Growing trade with Morocco and Guinea
2.4.2 Hawkins invented the English slave trade. In 1562 slaves were acquired from Africa and sold in South America (this angered Spain). This was financially successful. Second expedition secured investment from nobles and Queen. 3rd expedition went wrong as his fleet was blockaded in the Mexican port.
3 1571-88
3.1 Netherlands
3.1.1 1572 Elizabeth expelled Sea Beggars (Dutch pirates) from English ports. They landed in a dutch port and started a revolt against Alba's high tax and repression. Elizabeth allowed rebels to recruit English soldiers.
3.1.2 1575 Spanish launched a military offensive. Netherlands rose against Spanish (Spanish fury in 1576 - troops went on a murdering rampage). Rebels produced Pacification of Ghent which called for expulsion of foreign troops and restoration of autonomy. Spanish troops left
3.1.3 1577 Spanish troops returned and Elizabeth gave the Dutch £100,000 and sent a mercenary army to fight on behalf of the rebels. However, Netherlands split into Union of Utrecht (Northern and Protestant) and the Union of Arras (Southern and Catholic). Spanish made peace with Union of Arras. Duke of Parma began reconquest of North.
3.1.3.1 Tensions worsened as Elizabeth supported a Portagese pretender, knighted Drake (who infuriated Spanish) and supported the ill treatment of the Spanish ambassador. Parma's reconquest gained momentum and William of Ornage (rebel leader) was assassinated in 1584. Philip II and Catholic League in France joined together in 1584 Treaty of Joinville.
3.1.4 Treaty of Nonsuch joined Elizabeth and Dutch rebels. She provided 6400 infantry and 1000 cavalry. Crown controlled some ports and Drake secured ships captured in the Caribbean. After failing to make peace with Parma, she sent troops under Leicster. Rebels wanted Leicster to resign as: troops were ill-disciplined, some officers joined Parma, Leicster disagreed with rebels over taxtation, religion and trade in the South. Leiscter attempted a coup but resigned in 1588. This influenced Spain's Armada stratergy.
3.2 France
3.2.1 Thousands of French Huguenots killed in St Bartholomews massacre. Elizabeth sentarms to Protestants and allowed them to use English ships. Treaty of Blois renewed in 1574 which would continue financial support to Protestants. Difficulty of maintaining approach led to marriage negotiations with Anjou. Public opinion was against this.
3.2.2 Elizabeth wanted a formal alliance with France. In 1581 an Anglo-French league was proposed and it offered aid for ANjou to lead an expedition to the Netherlands. Henry III agreed on the condition that Elizabeth and Anjou marry - she refused. She took responsibility for Anjou's expedition and this was a disaster. He attempted a coup but was driven out of the Netherlands.
3.3 Spain
3.3.1 Origins of war - Philip angered by Elizabeth's support for Don Antonio's attack on the Azores in 1581 - this was seen as a vitall communication base for trade with Americas. Elizabeth angry about Spanish involvement in Catholic plots against her and was pressured by the Privy Council and public.
3.3.2 Increased tension due to Treaty of English ships in Spanish ports, Elizabeth's alliance with Sharif of Fez and her sending of troops into the Netherlands. Drake's 1585 attack on Spanish ports led Philip to send an Armada. Philip lost Parma's support but he stilled helped with the Armada.
3.3.3 Armada was defeated due to: Philip lacked control of Netherlands coastline, death of armada leader, England sent fire ships to vessels, England sunk 3 ships and drove 3 ashore, and north-westerly winds disrupted Spain and meant Philip and Parma couldn't meet up.
3.4 Trade
3.4.1 Markets for English wool moved from Southern to Northern Netherlands. Increase in trade with Ottoman empire and North America. Raleigh gained support from investors and in 1585 receievd a patent from the Queen to colonise Virginia - attempts to colonise were disastrous due to poor organisation, poor luck and pre-occupation with Spain from Elizabeth.
4 1588-03
4.1 Spain
4.1.1 1589 expedition to Portugal aiming to: destroy remainders of Armada, place Don Antonio on Portugese throne to ensure portugese independence, secure Azores and steal Spanish vessels. Expedition was a disaster due to poor organisation and resources, and it was overambitious.
4.1.2 From 1589-91 236 privately financed vessels operated. 1589 expeditions were successful. 1590-1 expeditions unsuccessful under Frobisher and Hawkins. 1592, all privateers, except Raleigh, made a profit. Cumberland made a profit in 93 but not 94.Expeditions meant Spain had to defend ships, decreasing resources used in Netherlands.
4.1.3 From 1595 there were 3 attacks on mainland Spain. Spanish treasure from Peru was carried across Panama - Drake planned to challenge the Spanish at Panama - he got the support of Essex. The plan achieved some plunder but the expedition never reached Panama. Drake and Hawkins died during its course. A 1596 expedition by Raliegh and Howard captured Cadiz and seized 4 galleons.But most investors made a loss. However, it humiliated Philip. There was a conflict between Crowns strategic needs and desire to make money by private investors. Essex led a 1597 fleet to attack a Spanish fleet. Winds set Essex back and a Spanish fleet got past him but luckily winds meant it couldn't land in Ireland (they tried to exploit the fact there was an Irish rebellion). A 1598 venture under Cumberland with 18 ships and 1000 soldiers - he wanted to seize Spanish goods from Puerto Rico. He took it but an epidemic of dynersty killed his force and he had to flee. By 1599 Elizabeth decided on defensive policy
4.2 France
4.2.1 Henry III died and was succeeded by Henry of Navarre (Huguenot). Most French cities were in Catholic League hands. Elizabeth sent 3600 troops. Henry won a victory but English troops helped assert authority over Northern France. Duke of Parma sent troops in Battle of Ivy but was unsuccessful. In 1590 Elizabeth sent a force to Brittany and Normandy as Henry feared invasion from Parma or Duke of Savoy.Troops in Normandy were relatively useless but Brittany troops destroyed Spanish fortresses at Crozon, removing the possibillity of Spanish invasion of Brittany. Anglo-French relations worsened as Henry burdened Elizabeth with problems.
4.3 Netherlands
4.3.1 Morale lifted by victory in Bergen-op-zoom. Vere replaced Willoughby as commander and was highly capable. Territory lost to Parma was gradually recovered. By 1594, the Spanish were expelled from the Northern Netherlands which became an independent state. Southern Netherlands had some degree of autonomy.
4.4 Ireland
4.4.1 The Earl of Tyrone centered a rebellion on Ulster in 1595. The Spanish tried to exploit the situation by including an Irishmen in the 1596 armada.An English force was defeated in the Battle of Yellow in 1598. Most of Ireland lay out of English control - close to becoming an independent Catholic Ireland. Essex was sent in 1599 to go North but instead he made a truce with Tyrone. The truce expired and Tyrone moved South to meet a Spanish army. Carew recaptured Munster and Mounjoy pushed Tyrone back to Ulster.Spanish troops landed in 1601. The English forced O'Donnell to retreat with the Spanish and Tyrone retreated to Ulster. Tyrone and Mountjoy agreed a peace treaty in 1603. James I suffered worening relations after Elizabeth died and Irish nobility could rule.

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