Civil rights campaigns

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History (Civil rights) Mind Map on Civil rights campaigns, created by newittjames on 05/09/2013.
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Civil rights campaigns
1 45-55
1.1 Smith v Allwright (44-50)

Annotations:

  • Black people not allowed to vote in Primary election
  • Lonnie E. Smith a Black Texan with NAACP backing took it to supreme court
  • Court case decided white Primary was illegal- According to 5th ammendment all people had ight to vote- Ruling applied to whole of America- all white primaries outlawed
1.2 Non Violent resistance 45-55
1.2.1 NAACP
1.2.1.1 1947 Supporters picket New Orleans four biggest department stores for refusing to allow Black people to try on hats
1.2.1.2 1951 same tactic in town of Alexandria in protest the local black school would close during cotton harvest so children could work on the plantations
1.2.1.3 1953 boycott of newly built school in Lafayette, protesting that its fercilities were inferior to those at the local white school.
1.2.2 United defense league (UDL) Committee on Negro Organisation (CNO) The Congress of Industrial Organisations (CIO) Congress of Racial Eqaulity (CORE) were also involved
1.2.2.1 UDL Organised a week long bus boycott in Louisiana's capital Baton Rouge June 1953
1.2.2.1.1 Operation Free Lift- a car pooling scheme which Transported AA's around in 100 private cars
1.2.2.2 1947-1957 CNO organised a voter registration campaign in the southern state of Arkansas
1.3 CORE's Journey of Reconciliation 1947

Annotations:

  • MvG did not lead to de facto change
  • 16 activists 8 black 8 white traveled on interstae buses sitting in wrong seats- proved that bus companies were ignoring law and12 activists were arrested but failed to force southern states to esegregate its interstate buses
1.4 Morgan v Virginia 1946

Annotations:

  • Challenged sgregation on interstate buses- 1944 Irene Morgan was fined $100 for refusing to give up her seat
  • She argued it was against her constitutional rights and with the backing of NAACP's Cheif Lawyer Thurgood Marshall went to supreme court 1946 and supreme court ruled that segregation on interstate buses was illegal.
1.5 NAACP Education
1.5.1 Sweatt v Painter 1950

Annotations:

  • Heman Sweatt refused admission to University of Texas Law school-NAACP stated he had the right to eqaul education.
  • The courts in Texas decided the state had no duty to integrate schools.-Argued for creation of Black school. Went to supreme court, NAACP stated that the new school was inferior. showing there were fewer books, teachers and students.
  • Supreme court agreed and the university had to accept Sweatt as a student. 1950
1.5.2 Brown v Board of Education of Topeka 1954

Annotations:

  • Oliver Brown took state of Kansas to court for failing to provide adequate education for his daughter. Linda Brown went to an all Black school 20 Blocks from home when a white school was much closer.
  • NAACP went to supreme court after 3 years the court unanimously decided segregation was illegal in all schools. First time seperate but eqaul doctrine was broken.
1.5.2.1 Brown II

Annotations:

  • Little de facto change from Brown. NAACP requested supreme court establish a time table for desegregation.  
  • The court produced Brown 2 stating that the desegregation of education should occur "with all deliberate speed." NAACP felt it was vague and southern racists felt it was another attack on segregation.
1.5.2.2 Supreme courts descision.
1.5.2.3 Black American reaction

Annotations:

  • Felt it was the beginning of the end of segregation. Following the case there was a rise i group activism.
1.5.2.4 White Backlash

Annotations:

  • Many saw the significance of Brown. Middle whitesset up whitecitizens coucils demandingsegregation in local schools and raising money to support white state schools to become private to avoid desegregation by1956 250,000 had joined white citizens councils. Coucils campaigned for candidates opposed to desegregation.
  • Revival of Klu Klux Klan activity. less than a year after a brown a 14 year old Black boy Emmet Till was lynched and he was not found guilty before an all white jury in spite of NAACP campaigns
  • Attack on NAACP. Alabama's state court bannd them.In Louisianna police persecution led to closure of 48 of its 50 branches.
  • Senator Henry F. Bryd called on white southerners to put up massive resistance' meaning white  people should defend segregation. Led 101 southern congressmen to sign the 'southern manifesto' stating that desegregation is unconstituional as the constitution doesn't mention education.
  • Eisenhower refused to comment on Brown and criticised it in private saying that legal change wouldn't change the hearts and minds of white people. Statingit was counter productive as it agravated white people.
2 1955-1962
2.1 Montgomery bus boycott 55-56

Annotations:

  • NAACP- Rosa Parks refused to leave her seat in bus fined $14. NAACP led legal case to challenge the segregation laws. Black people boycotted local bus companies.
  • Local NAACP leader E.D. Nixon called Black Montgomery leaders to form the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)- worked through Churches and had non-violent methods
  • Thanks Nixon the boycott started on the day of Rosas's fine. Lasted a year with 85% of black community boycotting and a car pooling scheme to support people.
  • Bus companies lost 65% of revenue as most passengers were Black. Montgomery officials realised the signifigance and following a march they arrested King and 156 other prominentBlack protestors- King fined $500 and 1 year in prison. The arrest drew media attention and King said he was proud of his crime and served only 2 weeks.
2.2 Browder v Gale 1956

Annotations:

  • NAACP supreme court case led to ruling that the segregation of buses is illegal. After Aurelia Browder was arrested for not giving up her seat and appealed against her conviction.
2.3 The Little Rock Campaign 1957

Annotations:

  • de facto desegregation of education in south slow. speed up Enrolling 9 black students into Little Rock's all white school.
  • Local Governor Orval Faubus opposed it and ordered the national guard to prevent the nine students from entering the school. 3rd september the national guard backed by a white mob refused to let the students in.
  • Eisenhower ordered Faubus to withdraw the national guard. White mobs still prevented students. Eisenhower took national guard under his control to guard the students.
  • Faubus backed by racistspassed a law allowing him to close public schools to avoid desegregation. The NAACP went to supreme court 1958 (Cooper v Aaron) which ruled it was illegal to prevent desegregation for any reason and the schools re opened.
2.4 Greensborough sit-ins 1960

Annotations:

  • 4 Local students at a Woolworths storein Greensboro, North Carolina and sat on whites only seats and refused to move until served. 27 students came the next day,300 by the fourth. Te store closed temporarilly to halt the sit ins. Within a week similar protests  occured in 6 more states.
  • Activists staged wade ins at swimming pools, read ins at libraries, watch ins at cinemas and kneel ins at church's. By the begginings of 1961 over 70,000 people, Black and white took part in such activities.
2.5 the Freedom rides 1961

Annotations:

  • To turn the de juure victories ofMorgan v Virginia and Boynton v Virginia into de facto desegregation of interstate  transport and facilities.
  • Organised by CORE A group of seven black and 6 white activists from CORE and SNCC setout on Greyhound and Trailways buses on 4th may 1961
  • Freedom riders expected violence and wanted to use it for media attention. In Anniston local police officers working with Ku Klux Klan, refused to intervene when a white mob fire bombed their bus. In Birmingham, the police cheif Eugene "Bull" Connor refused to protect the freedom riders and even gave police the day off. In Montgomery, too the police and medics refused to intervene after they were beaten with baseball bats by a white crowd.  
  • Following this King who had previously refused to be involved, gave a speach at a rally in support.
2.6 The Albany Movement 1961-62

Annotations:

  • Following the Freedon rides, the SNCC targetted Albany, Georgia and organised protests to end segregation.
  • Local police Cheif Pritchett had studied the strategy of the protestors.He tried to deny therm media attention. He ordered local police to treat protestors with respect and stop racist violence. When King was arrested during the campaign there is evidence to suggest Pritchett had him released to prevent media attention. Pritchett made promises of change so little concrete action occured.
  • The movement showed peaceful protest didnt always work. It led to divisions in the civil rights movement radicals in SNCC began to talk about using violence. King acknoledged that his tactic had not worked and stated that future campaigns neededto be more focused on specific issues against police cheifs more likely to react.
2.7 James Meredith and the University of Mississippi 1962

Annotations:

  • Meredith tried to become the first black student at the university of missisipi. Ross Barnet refused. Meredith and President Kennedy put pressure on Barnet to stand down but Barnet refused to give him protection and as a result he faced a mob of violent white protestors.
  • Following violence Kennedy sent federal troops to defend Meredith and allow him to enrole, nevertheless riots broke out and 2 people died. He successfully enroled and while shunned by other students graduated with a degree in political science.
3 63-65
3.1 The Birmingham campaign 1963

Annotations:

  • King new he had to plan carefully following the failure of Albany. King focused on Birmingham, Alabama as the freedom rides had shown police cheif Eugene 'Bull' Connor would react violently.
  • King also targetted Birmingham because the city was one of the worst examples of segregation. Organised by the SCLC. King set clear goals for the campaign focusing on desegregating the city's main shopping areas, administrative building, schools and public parks, as well as an end to racial discrimination in employment. 
  • Initially Bull Connor used legal actions such as court injunctions and released high profile campaigners such as jazz musician Al Hibbler. Nonetheless, King was arrested for an illegal march. In prison Kig wrote his letter condoning civil disobediance. written in april not published till june. 
  • April, first month calm so SCLC change tactic. James Bevel advocated use of Students as their imprisonment would not affect family income and would be an embarrasment to authorities to have prison full of students. The subsequently recruited students taunted police and the police attacked demonstrators with high pressure fire hoses and imprissoned 1300 black children.
  • This caused a media frenzy. President Kennedy said he was 'sickened' by the images of police violence from Birmingham. Soviet media devoted one fifth of their radio time to the protest. 
  • civil rights protestors were released from jail without charge. large department stores were desegregated. Racial discrimination in emplyment was to be ended.
  • King criticised for using children- malcom X said that Men do not use children as shields.
3.2 The March on Washington 1963

Annotations:

  • reps from SCLC, SNCC, CORE and NAACP organised a march on Washington.
  • The march was to put pressure on the President and congress to pass a civil rights bill. King organised the march under the slogan 'For Jobs and Freedom'
  • President Kennedy was unsure about the march. He feared it would become violent and jeopradise support for civil rights legislation. King assured kennedy it would be peaceful. A significant minority of 20% of marchers were white-showed popular support for civil rights legislature.
  • 250,000 marched to the lincoln memorial to hear speaches from leading figures including kings I have adream speach.
  • The march  presented civil right as a united front, with common goals and methods Despite Kennedy's fears the march remained peaceful; this further increased white support for the civil rights movement. The nature and scale attracted positive media attention in USA and abroad- A Ghana newspaper reported that the march was among the greatest revolutions in the annals of human history The march solidified  support for a new civil rights legislation which would give the government the power to force southern states to desegregate.  
3.3 The Mississippi Freedom summer 1964

Annotations:

  • Activists from SNCC, CORE and NAACP targeted greenwood, Mississippi for a voter registration campaign. Mississippi  had the lowest black voter registration, due to state laws forcing voters to take literacy tests.
  • 800 volunteers from the North many of whom were white. Activists attempted to increase voter registration by escorting AA;s to registration offices. Additionally, campaigners from SNCC and CORE established 30 Freedom schools across Mississippi. These were designed to educate AA's about civil rights issues and black hitory and to encouage them to vote.
  • Massive resistance from Ku Klux Klan and state police with the homes of 30 black people and 37 black churches being fire bombed, 80 beatings, 35 shootings and over 1000 arrests. In June 3 civil rights workers abducted and killed 2 w 1b by klans men-outraged civil rights volunteers but men not found guilty by white jury
  • 17,000 tried to vote due to opposition only 1600 succeded Resulted in two voting primarieslily-white demo party and MFDP Johnson proposed compromise where lily whites primaries MFDP honoured guests. rejected and civil rights campaigners relations with johnson broke down people felt political system as fundamentally racist and proposed more militant methods.
3.4 Selma Campaign 1965

Annotations:

  • Part of ongoing campaign to register black people to vote. SCLC focussed on Selma, Alabama as only 1% of black adults were registered to vote. King also beleived police cheif Jim Clark was likely to respond with violence.
  • SCLC and SNCC activists held a series of demonstrations to raise publicity  for the campaign. The local police responded violently. In one case using electric attle prods. and the murder of Lee Jackson, a 26 year old black man who was protecting his mothe and grandmother from beating.
  • Climax of the selma campaign was a 50 mile march from selma to montgomery. first attempt for march ended when police armed with bullwhips and tear gas, forced marchers to turn back. 2nd attemp two days later was also unsuccessful after king turned back under pressure from johnson. 8000 started march after 4 day march 25,000 showed support. 
4 65-68
4.1 The Moynihan Report 1965

Annotations:

  • study of economic positions of AA's by daniel patick Moynihan.  The report drew attention to the high levels of crime and poor living conditions of black communities.
  • Johnson commisione dthe report and hoped it would promote eqaulity. However it backfired as black leaders were horrified that the report blamed black people for their problems.
  • It created further tension between well meaning liberal politicanssuch as President johnson and black radicals It was used by some to argue against government help for black people.
4.2 The Chicago Freedom movement 1966

Annotations:

  • Kings first north initiative- to challenge de facto segregation of education, housing and employment with peaceful protest. Marches opposed with exreme violence king saying he hadnt seen angry cowds like it before.- Mayor daily forced to negotiate but little acctual change occured.
4.3 The Poor Peoples Campaign 1968

Annotations:

  • Campaign of all differeent races to end ineqaulity showed using more radical methods outside political system as chicago had taught him
4.4 The Memphis Sanitation workers strike 1968

Annotations:

  • Workers wanted to peacefully campaign for better wages king asked to help and agreed but peaceful march only lasted one hour before marchers started attacking shops and looting
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