Created by Alfie Ross almost 6 years ago
Background information Emperor ruled Germany 1914 (Kaiser Wilhelm II) 1918-- WW1 lost Signed 'treaty of versailles' (weimar republic) Weimar republic take charge with Elbert as president and Scheidmann as chancellor. Weimar Republic uses proportional representation-- hard to make decisions fast. Were blamed for treaty of versailles (Germany was left very poor having to give away industrial land and pay huge reparations), Hyperinflation, the loss of WW1 and the munich putsch. Weimar had a winning streak when america lent them money, Streseman helped improve the economy and they were accepted by the league of nations Wall street crash happens and everything goes downhill... Link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/tch_wjec/germany19291947/nazi_leaders1.shtml
The Nazis Gain Power weimar Republic are hated by extremist groups-- both left and right wing-- and the 'people' (they blamed them for losing the war and for germany's poverty) The treaty of versailles limited germany's army, so the army hated weimar too 1919- Dexler creates DAP Hitler discovers DAP when spying for the government Hitler joins DAP and is responsible for propaganda- DAP become NSDAP By 1921 Hitler is leader of the party Putsch attempted in Munich , November 1923. It failed. Hitler was prevented from speaking publicly, and NSDAP was banned until 1927 However, hitler gained publicity through writing mein kempf in prison, and his speech when on trial.
Hitler gains and consolidate his power The Nazis did not have majority seats They managed to increase their popularity, so by 1933 the Nazis had 43.9% of the vote. But it was not enough... Von Papen was chancellor, but wasn't massively popular Von Papen got voted out and the Nazis 'won' vote for chancellor Despite reluctancy, Hindenburg was forced to appoint Hitler as chancellor When Hindenburg fell ill, Hitler took role as president too. When the reichstag fire began it was blamed on the communists Speaking out against Nazis in government was banned Communists were put in prison Prisoner's rights were taken away When Nazis did not get majority voes, Hitler forms a coallition 5th of March 1933, Dachau, first concentration camp, is made The Nazis take control over trade unions and all areas of government. on the 14th of July 1934, the only legal party is the Nazi party The Members in the SA increased from 30000 to 3000000 between august 1929 and January 1934 in 1934, Hitler established the SS, his own personal guards on the night of the long knives, the SS destroyed the SA because Hitler needed the support of the army and the army did not like the SA
Economic and social changes The Nazis did not include Women, Jews or men aged 18-25 (RAD) in Nazi statistics RAD were forced to join the national labour service and spend 6 months preparing tobe a soldier The Nazis increased the size of the army and built warships They ensured the country was self sufficient (autarky) KDF- meant strength through joy, and tried to ensure workers had something fun they could do at work. Autobahn meant building a network of motorways and Building Hospitals Rearmament had been prohibited by the treaty of versailles, but the nazis were rearming It created new jobs, and strengthened the armies Tarde Unions were replaced with the DAF (German Labour Front). They were a Nazified version They didn't really stand for the people, and increased working hours. You had nowhere else to go if you had an issue. The KDF meant everyone conformed to Nazi Leisure times Women were supposed to follow the three K's (Children, Church, Kitchen) Women received medals for having lots of kids Aryan women could not have abortions, and non aryan were often sterilised by 1936, women could not work on professional level, in the Nazi part or as Judges (as they were too controlled by emotion) Education was warped and twisted to fit Nazi ideals- Children were taught to hate jews, Love Hitler and believe in an Aryan race Teachers were forced to teach Nazi Curriculum in 1933 there were book burning ceremonies for anti-Nazi books Children did PE, German, Biology (Aryan race only/how to recognise a jew), History (pro-hitler), Nazi ideology The Nazis wanted the third reich to last 1000 years and were preparing for the future 1925- Hitler Jugend Established, 1936-Made compulsory, 1939- Membership of 8 million
Political Policy By 1929 the SS was divided into three units-- Safety, Waffen (armed forces dependable unit) And killing (concentration camps etc.) The Gestapo were like police. They sentenced 534 people to death, and arrested 160,000 people for political crimes The Gestapo had the right to kill and imprison without trial The Nazis Established the people's court to test and trial individuals locally- 1934 In 1933, 10,000 lawyers swear an oath to Hitler in 1934 every province as abolished and placed under Nazi Control Propaganda and subliminal messages could be found in lots of entertainment Books, films, Newspapers, Radio and any other type of media was censored to avoid anti-Nazi, Pro-Jew or pro-Black media being published in 1938 10,000 publications disappeared...
Racial Policies 1936- Lebensborn established (aryan women could 'breed' with aryan men from SS and donate baby to hitler Between 1933 and 1936, Jewish People were prohibited from working in many jobs, The SS army would stand outside Jewish Businesses to scare off customers and Jews were discounted as German Citizens In 1938 Jews had to use Jewish forenames such as Sara, and the Night of Broken Glass took place were the Nazis destroyed synagogues and shop windows, and sent 30,000 Jews to concentration camps Though the Nazis 'believed' in christianity, they felt threatened by the church 1933 the Nazis and the Catholics signed a concordat- a sort of live-and-let-live agreement Hitler then began to close down Catholic Churches The pope protested by issuing a letter in 1937 which had no impact at all and 400 priests were sent to Dachau concentration camps The Nazis made the National Reich Church- All protestant churches merged into one. It was all Aryan, and they read Mein Kempf Martin Niemoller formed the confessional church along with 6000 ministers in 1934 Him and 800 ministers were sent to concentration camps Jehovah Witnesses were also kiled as they refused to fight Astrologers, Healers and fortune tellers were banned
World War 2 The Nazis began to take over other countries and claim them as part of germany By 1941 they owned most of europe Rationing ensured everyone ate a balanced diet- many ate better during the war than they had done before There was No toilet paper hot water could only be used twice a week soap and clothes were rationed A black market developed in 1940 children moved from Berlin, but this wasn't very successful The Nazis tried to encourage women to work and increase birth rate- These were both unsuccessful. The Nazis tried to force 3 million women aged 17-45 to go out to work and only 1 million did. Propaganda was used to keep a positive attitude in 1942 Germany lost the very important battle of Stalingrad. It ten became evident that they were beginning to fail No shops did not help with the war effort 1939- 700 grams of meat for each person each week --- In 1943 Zoo animals were slaughtered---1945- 250 grams Allied bombing killed roughly 800000 civillians. People fled to the country. The Germans realised they were losing.In 1944 the volkstrumm was introduced to raise germans' spirits. They helped homeless, refugees, widows, eldelry, in blackouts etc. Jews were locked up in Ghettos- around 50,000 died of starvation and disease A section of the SS was created with the prupose of finding Jews, shooting them, and thrwoing them into mass graves This was too slow, so Hitler came up with the final solution... 1941 goering orders Heydrich to organise the final solution Many Gas chambers were constructed in Poland The Nazis killed 6 million Jews using this method- this was called the holocaust
Opposition Edelweiss Pirates White Rose The Swing Youth Red orchestra- Supported Soviet Army and encouraged German Soldiers to run away Kreisau Circles- Profesionals and conservatives who disliked the Nazis Von Galen- Criticised euthanising the disabled Bonehoffer- Smuggled Jews out of the country General Ludwig Beck and Karl Goerdeler unsuccesfully attempted to assassinate Hitler in 1943 Operation Valkyrie attempted to bomb Hitler It failed, Hitler was only injured 5000 people suspected of attempting to kill Hitler were executed
Death of Hitler and end of the war It became clear the war was lost Hitler married Eva Braun The two killed themselves They were burnt Germany was split into 4 sections (US, France, UK and Soviet) The Nuremberg Trials tested Nazi Officials 10 people were hanged The Nazi Party was made illegal Former Nazis were removed from positions of influence Allies took control of curriculum, entertainment and teaching- many textbooks were burnt and teachers fired